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BITCOIN FAUCET – MOON BITCOIN HACK

https://ecoin4dummies.com/bitcoin-faucet-moon-bitcoin-hack/
submitted by anaecoin4 to CryptoBeginners [link] [comments]

BITCOIN FAUCET MOON BITCOIN HACK /r/BitcoinMining

BITCOIN FAUCET MOON BITCOIN HACK /BitcoinMining submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Going to the Moon – Will the Frequency of Hacks on Exchanges Swell?

This post was originally published on this siteThis post was originally published on this site Bitcoin expected to attain ATH very soon The whole crypto space is awaiting bitcoin to surge above the $11000 mark and touch the resistance levels which are formed around $11400. But unfortunately, Bitcoin is contented in trending in a very narrow range. Bitcoin which touched above $10,700 […]
submitted by FuzzyOneAdmin to fuzzyone [link] [comments]

Bitcoin newbie here, I recently got on board of the hodl balloon hoping to reach the moon. Do I need to worry about the hack that was in the news?

submitted by MaximusVonStoppable to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

It's beginning to feel a lot like 2017. Some useful reminders and advice for new comers.

Hype and increasing prices will undoubtedly attract new investors, HODLers, and gamblers. Regardless of how long you've been in crypto, below are a few pieces of information (or reminders) you should consider.
  1. We're still early. Cryptocurrency, including bitcoin, is still in its infancy. Because of this, we will continue to see headlines of hacks, exchange closures, big name investors coming into the space, major institutional adoption, and everything in between. Until crypto is regulated (for better or worse) and even after, there will be bad actors attempting to steal your cryptocurrencies. To that end, think twice when hearing about 'deals' or investments that seem too good to be true. They probably are.
  2. Protection. I often see questions regarding the storage of cryptocurrencies. Not to oversimplify, but as a user, you have ~3 choices to store your cryptocurrency. In order of most secure to least secure:
    1. Cold Storage - From wikipedia: Cold storage refers to storing Bitcoins/Cryptos offline and spending without the private keys controlling them ever being online. This resists theft by hackers and malware, and is often a necessary security precaution especially dealing with large amounts of Bitcoin. If you aren't comfortable manually storing your private key, physical hardware wallets are your best alternative. When possible, buy direct from the manufacturer to avoid any tampering to your new device.
      1. https://trezor.io/
      2. https://www.ledger.com/
    2. Hot Wallets - From investopedia: The difference between a hot wallet and a cold wallet is that hot wallets are connected to the internet, while cold wallets are not. Hot wallets can be installed onto your mobile device and/or your web browser. Similar to cold storage, these hot wallets will 'store' your crypto and will be accessed to send/receive tokens, execute smart contracts, and conduct other transactions. There are many options to choose from, but MetaMask is as close to an industry standard as it comes, and the developer has recently implemented an ERC-20 token swap function. Again, download directly from the developer if you can.
      1. https://metamask.io/
    3. Exchanges - Exchanges certainly have their own purpose, most notably as an on and off ramp for your fiat currency (e.g., US Dollar, etc). However, when you read headlines like "Bitcoin Hacked for 10 million dollars!" what they usually mean is, a centralized exchange that holds users' cryptocurrencies was hacked and bitcoin was extracted from the exchange's storage. For this reason, exchanges are considered to be less safe than your Hot Wallet and Cold storage alternatives.
  3. Don't be greedy. This is easier said than done, and many veteran traders have learned this the hard way -- some still haven't learned. When prices are only going up, you're going to feel like a million bucks. But things dont go up forever. Ever. (Unless it's the Fed's balance sheet.. har har). Point being, it's okay to take profits along the way up. I guarantee you'll have an opportunity to re-buy those same tokens at a cheaper price, and you'll enjoy them even more the second time around.
  4. Don't spend more than you can afford. Hopefully this goes without saying, but the crypto space is extremely volatile. It is not uncommon to lose your entire investment with just one wrong token/ICO/scam. To that end; just use your common sense. It sounds easy, but when you're making money, sometimes it's hard to see the cliff at the end of the road.
  5. Keep learning. I joined the crypto space because I saw an opportunity to make money. It's been a wild ride, and I've learned a lot more than I've gained (from a monetary perspective). What i didn't expect to happen, was to open pandora's box when it comes to what Bitcoin (specifically) aimed to solve. My thirst for knowledge only expanded when I learned of the opportunity space Ethereum was trying to fill. Compound that with the immutability of blockchain technology, DeFi, smart contracts, data oracles, (and the list goes on); now I'm completely hooked. It's clear to me that blockchain will revolutionize the way we function on the global scale. But many are just now beginning to learn about bBitcoin, and we're ahead of the curve. Which leads me back to point number 1; we're still early.
Sorry for rambling on here; I'm sure more veteran HODLers have already X'd out of this post, which is fine. They likely don't need this information as they have learned these same tips along their own journeys. But for newcomers to the space, I wish I had this foundational knowledge from the get go. Don't be afraid to ask questions on this sub. With the recent implementation of MOON tokens (this is a whole 'nother topic), I've personally noticed more downvotes than normal. But awareness and understanding is critical to adoption, so don't be turned off if you don't get an answer to your questions immediately. There is a wealth of knowledge scattered across the internet, and still a lot of smart people on reddit who are willing to help.
submitted by myhaxdontwork to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Daily Discussion - July 16, 2020 (GMT+0)

Welcome to the Daily Discussion. Please read the disclaimer, guidelines, and rules before participating.

Disclaimer:
Though karma rules still apply, moderation is less stringent on this thread than on the rest of the sub. Therefore, consider all information posted here with several liberal heaps of salt, and always cross check any information you may read on this thread with known sources. Any trade information posted in this open thread may be highly misleading, and could be an attempt to manipulate new readers by known "pump and dump (PnD) groups" for their own profit. BEWARE of such practices and exercise utmost caution before acting on any trade tip mentioned here.

Rules:
  • All sub rules apply in this thread. The prior exemption for karma and age requirements is no longer in effect.
  • Discussion topics must be related to cryptocurrency.
  • Comments will be sorted by newest first.

To see prior Skeptics Discussions, click here.
submitted by AutoModerator to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin newbie here, I recently got on board of the hodl balloon hoping to reach the moon. Do I need to worry about the hack that was in the news? /r/Bitcoin

Bitcoin newbie here, I recently got on board of the hodl balloon hoping to reach the moon. Do I need to worry about the hack that was in the news? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Ultimate glossary of crypto currency terms, acronyms and abbreviations

I thought it would be really cool to have an ultimate guide for those new to crypto currencies and the terms used. I made this mostly for beginner’s and veterans alike. I’m not sure how much use you will get out of this. Stuff gets lost on Reddit quite easily so I hope this finds its way to you. Included in this list, I have included most of the terms used in crypto-communities. I have compiled this list from a multitude of sources. The list is in alphabetical order and may include some words/terms not exclusive to the crypto world but may be helpful regardless.
2FA
Two factor authentication. I highly advise that you use it.
51% Attack:
A situation where a single malicious individual or group gains control of more than half of a cryptocurrency network’s computing power. Theoretically, it could allow perpetrators to manipulate the system and spend the same coin multiple times, stop other users from completing blocks and make conflicting transactions to a chain that could harm the network.
Address (or Addy):
A unique string of numbers and letters (both upper and lower case) used to send, receive or store cryptocurrency on the network. It is also the public key in a pair of keys needed to sign a digital transaction. Addresses can be shared publicly as a text or in the form of a scannable QR code. They differ between cryptocurrencies. You can’t send Bitcoin to an Ethereum address, for example.
Altcoin (alternative coin): Any digital currency other than Bitcoin. These other currencies are alternatives to Bitcoin regarding features and functionalities (e.g. faster confirmation time, lower price, improved mining algorithm, higher total coin supply). There are hundreds of altcoins, including Ether, Ripple, Litecoin and many many others.
AIRDROP:
An event where the investors/participants are able to receive free tokens or coins into their digital wallet.
AML: Defines Anti-Money Laundering laws**.**
ARBITRAGE:
Getting risk-free profits by trading (simultaneous buying and selling of the cryptocurrency) on two different exchanges which have different prices for the same asset.
Ashdraked:
Being Ashdraked is essentially a more detailed version of being Zhoutonged. It is when you lose all of your invested capital, but you do so specifically by shorting Bitcoin. The expression “Ashdraked” comes from a story of a Romanian cryptocurrency investor who insisted upon shorting BTC, as he had done so successfully in the past. When the price of BTC rose from USD 300 to USD 500, the Romanian investor lost all of his money.
ATH (All Time High):
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency in its entire history. Alternatively, ATL is all time low
Bearish:
A tendency of prices to fall; a pessimistic expectation that the value of a coin is going to drop.
Bear trap:
A manipulation of a stock or commodity by investors.
Bitcoin:
The very first, and the highest ever valued, mass-market open source and decentralized cryptocurrency and digital payment system that runs on a worldwide peer to peer network. It operates independently of any centralized authorities
Bitconnect:
One of the biggest scams in the crypto world. it was made popular in the meme world by screaming idiot Carlos Matos, who infamously proclaimed," hey hey heeeey” and “what's a what's a what's up wasssssssssuuuuuuuuuuuuup, BitConneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeect!”. He is now in the mentally ill meme hall of fame.
Block:
A package of permanently recorded data about transactions occurring every time period (typically about 10 minutes) on the blockchain network. Once a record has been completed and verified, it goes into a blockchain and gives way to the next block. Each block also contains a complex mathematical puzzle with a unique answer, without which new blocks can’t be added to the chain.
Blockchain:
An unchangeable digital record of all transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency and shared across thousands of computers worldwide. It has no central authority governing it. Records, or blocks, are chained to each other using a cryptographic signature. They are stored publicly and chronologically, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the term blockchain. Anyone can have access to the database and yet it remains incredibly difficult to hack.
Bullish:
A tendency of prices to rise; an optimistic expectation that a specific cryptocurrency will do well and its value is going to increase.
BTFD:
Buy the fucking dip. This advise was bestowed upon us by the gods themselves. It is the iron code to crypto enthusiasts.
Bull market:
A market that Cryptos are going up.
Consensus:
An agreement among blockchain participants on the validity of data. Consensus is reached when the majority of nodes on the network verify that the transaction is 100% valid.
Crypto bubble:
The instability of cryptocurrencies in terms of price value
Cryptocurrency:
A type of digital currency, secured by strong computer code (cryptography), that operates independently of any middlemen or central authoritie
Cryptography:
The art of converting sensitive data into a format unreadable for unauthorized users, which when decoded would result in a meaningful statement.
Cryptojacking:
The use of someone else’s device and profiting from its computational power to mine cryptocurrency without their knowledge and consent.
Crypto-Valhalla:
When HODLers(holders) eventually cash out they go to a place called crypto-Valhalla. The strong will be separated from the weak and the strong will then be given lambos.
DAO:
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. It defines A blockchain technology inspired organization or corporation that exists and operates without human intervention.
Dapp (decentralized application):
An open-source application that runs and stores its data on a blockchain network (instead of a central server) to prevent a single failure point. This software is not controlled by the single body – information comes from people providing other people with data or computing power.
Decentralized:
A system with no fundamental control authority that governs the network. Instead, it is jointly managed by all users to the system.
Desktop wallet:
A wallet that stores the private keys on your computer, which allow the spending and management of your bitcoins.
DILDO:
Long red or green candles. This is a crypto signal that tells you that it is not favorable to trade at the moment. Found on candlestick charts.
Digital Signature:
An encrypted digital code attached to an electronic document to prove that the sender is who they say they are and confirm that a transaction is valid and should be accepted by the network.
Double Spending:
An attack on the blockchain where a malicious user manipulates the network by sending digital money to two different recipients at exactly the same time.
DYOR:
Means do your own research.
Encryption:
Converting data into code to protect it from unauthorized access, so that only the intended recipient(s) can decode it.
Eskrow:
the practice of having a third party act as an intermediary in a transaction. This third party holds the funds on and sends them off when the transaction is completed.
Ethereum:
Ethereum is an open source, public, blockchain-based platform that runs smart contracts and allows you to build dapps on it. Ethereum is fueled by the cryptocurrency Ether.
Exchange:
A platform (centralized or decentralized) for exchanging (trading) different forms of cryptocurrencies. These exchanges allow you to exchange cryptos for local currency. Some popular exchanges are Coinbase, Bittrex, Kraken and more.
Faucet:
A website which gives away free cryptocurrencies.
Fiat money:
Fiat currency is legal tender whose value is backed by the government that issued it, such as the US dollar or UK pound.
Fork:
A split in the blockchain, resulting in two separate branches, an original and a new alternate version of the cryptocurrency. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run simultaneously on different parts of the network. For example, Bitcoin Cash is a Bitcoin fork.
FOMO:
Fear of missing out.
Frictionless:
A system is frictionless when there are zero transaction costs or trading retraints.
FUD:
Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt regarding the crypto market.
Gas:
A fee paid to run transactions, dapps and smart contracts on Ethereum.
Halving:
A 50% decrease in block reward after the mining of a pre-specified number of blocks. Every 4 years, the “reward” for successfully mining a block of bitcoin is reduced by half. This is referred to as “Halving”.
Hardware wallet:
Physical wallet devices that can securely store cryptocurrency maximally. Some examples are Ledger Nano S**,** Digital Bitbox and more**.**
Hash:
The process that takes input data of varying sizes, performs an operation on it and converts it into a fixed size output. It cannot be reversed.
Hashing:
The process by which you mine bitcoin or similar cryptocurrency, by trying to solve the mathematical problem within it, using cryptographic hash functions.
HODL:
A Bitcoin enthusiast once accidentally misspelled the word HOLD and it is now part of the bitcoin legend. It can also mean hold on for dear life.
ICO (Initial Coin Offering):
A blockchain-based fundraising mechanism, or a public crowd sale of a new digital coin, used to raise capital from supporters for an early stage crypto venture. Beware of these as there have been quite a few scams in the past.
John mcAfee:
A man who will one day eat his balls on live television for falsely predicting bitcoin going to 100k. He has also become a small meme within the crypto community for his outlandish claims.
JOMO:
Joy of missing out. For those who are so depressed about missing out their sadness becomes joy.
KYC:
Know your customer(alternatively consumer).
Lambo:
This stands for Lamborghini. A small meme within the investing community where the moment someone gets rich they spend their earnings on a lambo. One day we will all have lambos in crypto-valhalla.
Ledger:
Away from Blockchain, it is a book of financial transactions and balances. In the world of crypto, the blockchain functions as a ledger. A digital currency’s ledger records all transactions which took place on a certain block chain network.
Leverage:
Trading with borrowed capital (margin) in order to increase the potential return of an investment.
Liquidity:
The availability of an asset to be bought and sold easily, without affecting its market price.
of the coins.
Margin trading:
The trading of assets or securities bought with borrowed money.
Market cap/MCAP:
A short-term for Market Capitalization. Market Capitalization refers to the market value of a particular cryptocurrency. It is computed by multiplying the Price of an individual unit of coins by the total circulating supply.
Miner:
A computer participating in any cryptocurrency network performing proof of work. This is usually done to receive block rewards.
Mining:
The act of solving a complex math equation to validate a blockchain transaction using computer processing power and specialized hardware.
Mining contract:
A method of investing in bitcoin mining hardware, allowing anyone to rent out a pre-specified amount of hashing power, for an agreed amount of time. The mining service takes care of hardware maintenance, hosting and electricity costs, making it simpler for investors.
Mining rig:
A computer specially designed for mining cryptocurrencies.
Mooning:
A situation the price of a coin rapidly increases in value. Can also be used as: “I hope bitcoin goes to the moon”
Node:
Any computing device that connects to the blockchain network.
Open source:
The practice of sharing the source code for a piece of computer software, allowing it to be distributed and altered by anyone.
OTC:
Over the counter. Trading is done directly between parties.
P2P (Peer to Peer):
A type of network connection where participants interact directly with each other rather than through a centralized third party. The system allows the exchange of resources from A to B, without having to go through a separate server.
Paper wallet:
A form of “cold storage” where the private keys are printed onto a piece of paper and stored offline. Considered as one of the safest crypto wallets, the truth is that it majors in sweeping coins from your wallets.
Pre mining:
The mining of a cryptocurrency by its developers before it is released to the public.
Proof of stake (POS):
A consensus distribution algorithm which essentially rewards you based upon the amount of the coin that you own. In other words, more investment in the coin will leads to more gain when you mine with this protocol In Proof of Stake, the resource held by the “miner” is their stake in the currency.
PROOF OF WORK (POW) :
The competition of computers competing to solve a tough crypto math problem. The first computer that does this is allowed to create new blocks and record information.” The miner is then usually rewarded via transaction fees.
Protocol:
A standardized set of rules for formatting and processing data.
Public key / private key:
A cryptographic code that allows a user to receive cryptocurrencies into an account. The public key is made available to everyone via a publicly accessible directory, and the private key remains confidential to its respective owner. Because the key pair is mathematically related, whatever is encrypted with a public key may only be decrypted by its corresponding private key.
Pump and dump:
Massive buying and selling activity of cryptocurrencies (sometimes organized and to one’s benefit) which essentially result in a phenomenon where the significant surge in the value of coin followed by a huge crash take place in a short time frame.
Recovery phrase:
A set of phrases you are given whereby you can regain or access your wallet should you lose the private key to your wallets — paper, mobile, desktop, and hardware wallet. These phrases are some random 12–24 words. A recovery Phrase can also be called as Recovery seed, Seed Key, Recovery Key, or Seed Phrase.
REKT:
Referring to the word “wrecked”. It defines a situation whereby an investor or trader who has been ruined utterly following the massive losses suffered in crypto industry.
Ripple:
An alternative payment network to Bitcoin based on similar cryptography. The ripple network uses XRP as currency and is capable of sending any asset type.
ROI:
Return on investment.
Safu:
A crypto term for safe popularized by the Bizonnaci YouTube channel after the CEO of Binance tweeted
“Funds are safe."
“the exchage I use got hacked!”“Oh no, are your funds safu?”
“My coins better be safu!”


Sats/Satoshi:
The smallest fraction of a bitcoin is called a “satoshi” or “sat”. It represents one hundred-millionth of a bitcoin and is named after Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi Nakamoto:
This was the pseudonym for the mysterious creator of Bitcoin.
Scalability:
The ability of a cryptocurrency to contain the massive use of its Blockchain.
Sharding:
A scaling solution for the Blockchain. It is generally a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
Shitcoin:
Coin with little potential or future prospects.
Shill:
Spreading buzz by heavily promoting a particular coin in the community to create awareness.
Short position:
Selling of a specific cryptocurrency with an expectation that it will drop in value.
Silk road:
The online marketplace where drugs and other illicit items were traded for Bitcoin. This marketplace is using accessed through “TOR”, and VPNs. In October 2013, a Silk Road was shut down in by the FBI.
Smart Contract:
Certain computational benchmarks or barriers that have to be met in turn for money or data to be deposited or even be used to verify things such as land rights.
Software Wallet:
A crypto wallet that exists purely as software files on a computer. Usually, software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources.
Solidity:
A contract-oriented coding language for implementing smart contracts on Ethereum. Its syntax is similar to that of JavaScript.
Stable coin:
A cryptocoin with an extremely low volatility that can be used to trade against the overall market.
Staking:
Staking is the process of actively participating in transaction validation (similar to mining) on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. On these blockchains, anyone with a minimum-required balance of a specific cryptocurrency can validate transactions and earn Staking rewards.
Surge:
When a crypto currency appreciates or goes up in price.
Tank:
The opposite of mooning. When a coin tanks it can also be described as crashing.
Tendies
For traders , the chief prize is “tendies” (chicken tenders, the treat an overgrown man-child receives for being a “Good Boy”) .
Token:
A unit of value that represents a digital asset built on a blockchain system. A token is usually considered as a “coin” of a cryptocurrency, but it really has a wider functionality.
TOR: “The Onion Router” is a free web browser designed to protect users’ anonymity and resist censorship. Tor is usually used surfing the web anonymously and access sites on the “Darkweb”.
Transaction fee:
An amount of money users are charged from their transaction when sending cryptocurrencies.
Volatility:
A measure of fluctuations in the price of a financial instrument over time. High volatility in bitcoin is seen as risky since its shifting value discourages people from spending or accepting it.
Wallet:
A file that stores all your private keys and communicates with the blockchain to perform transactions. It allows you to send and receive bitcoins securely as well as view your balance and transaction history.
Whale:
An investor that holds a tremendous amount of cryptocurrency. Their extraordinary large holdings allow them to control prices and manipulate the market.
Whitepaper:

A comprehensive report or guide made to understand an issue or help decision making. It is also seen as a technical write up that most cryptocurrencies provide to take a deep look into the structure and plan of the cryptocurrency/Blockchain project. Satoshi Nakamoto was the first to release a whitepaper on Bitcoin, titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” in late 2008.
And with that I finally complete my odyssey. I sincerely hope that this helped you and if you are new, I welcome you to crypto. If you read all of that I hope it increased, you in knowledge.
my final definition:
Crypto-Family:
A collection of all the HODLers and crypto fanatics. A place where all people alike unite over a love for crypto.
We are all in this together as we pioneer the new world that is crypto currency. I wish you a great day and Happy HODLing.
-u/flacciduck
feel free to comment words or terms that you feel should be included or about any errors I made.
Edit1:some fixes were made and added words.
submitted by flacciduck to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

After multiple hacks, millions of bitcoins lost, now suspicious deaths... [auto-x-post - OP was moon_is_cheese]

submitted by fringebot5001 to fringediscussion [link] [comments]

Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Merchandise idea: Moonopoly!

In response to the post about merchandise pinned here , I was wondering would it be possible to create a custom cryptocurrency version of Monopoly called (of course) Moonopoly! Christmas is just around the corner and it would make a great gift to a fellow crypto enthusiast, or could even be given out as prizes!  
Anyway, regardless of whether or not this is a good idea that can be taken seriously, or something completely ridiculous, I figured we could have some fun now deciding how this game would hypothetically be played and allocating the squares for the board. Here are my ideas:  
It would work just like normal Monopoly which we're all familiar with. But instead of being handed out a set amount of $ or whatever, the currency for Moonopoly could be Dai/Satoshis...or even Moons!  
Instead of the 28 properties we could have 28 cryptos. (Just like in standard monopoly, their value doesn't have to be exact to real life.) Bitcoin and Etherum are the equivalent of the premium properties (Mayfair and Park Lane on UK Monopoly). Perhaps nano could be the cheap Old Kent Road (Don't hate me nano fans, I love nano really. In fact nano could be the Free Parking square!)  
So let's say you land on the Bitcoin (Mayfair) square and want to buy it. That will cost you 0.1 BTC. If someone lands on it, they have to give you 0.01 BTC. Instead of building houses and hotels, you can add more Bitcoins/Eth etc, which would then increase the amount someone would have to pay when they land on your crypto.  
The 4 railroads could be exchanges (Binance, Coinbase etc.) and perhaps the two utilities could be something deFi like Uniswap and Honeyswap.  
We could have a lot of fun with the Chance and Community Chest cards. Here are some ideas:  
-You entered your seed in a phishing site. Pay 0.3 BTC.  
-You've received an airdrop. Collect 0.2 BTC.  
-Binance has been hacked. Pay 0.5 BTC.  
-Bullrun confirmed! Collect 0.4 BTC.  
-The ICO you invested in has exit scammed. Pay 0.2 BTC.  
-You didn't file your crypto taxes. Go to jail. Don't pass Go. Don't collect 0.1 BTC...  
For the pieces (i.e. the dog, the boot, the hat..) we could have:  
-Doge  
-Carlos Matos  
-Bogdanoff  
-Victor Cobra?  
Alright, it might sound a bit silly. I mean who are we going to play this with? But let's not worry about that. I want to know, what would you have on your Moonopoly board?
submitted by crypto_grandma to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: programming top posts from 2019-10-22 to 2020-10-21 06:41 PDT

Period: 364.67 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 180545
Rate (per day) 2.74 491.84
Unique Redditors 629 34951
Combined Score 1178903 2688497

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 47468 points, 49 submissions: iamkeyur
    1. One Guy Ruined Hacktoberfest 2020 (3039 points, 584 comments)
    2. AWS forked my project and launched it as its own service (2956 points, 810 comments)
    3. Privacy analysis of Tiktok’s app and website (2858 points, 234 comments)
    4. 98.css – design system for building faithful recreations of Windows 98 UIs (2781 points, 318 comments)
    5. Microsoft demos language model that writes code based on signature and comment (2621 points, 614 comments)
    6. Why does HTML think “chucknorris” is a color? (2565 points, 531 comments)
    7. Windows 95 UI Design (2309 points, 665 comments)
    8. The Linux codebase has over 3k TODO comments, many from over a decade ago (2119 points, 369 comments)
    9. eBay is port scanning visitors to their website (1829 points, 236 comments)
    10. Using const/let instead of var can make JavaScript code run 10× slower in Webkit (1814 points, 525 comments)
  2. 44853 points, 28 submissions: speckz
    1. From August, Chrome will start blocking ads that consume 4MB of network data, 15 seconds of CPU usage in any 30 second period, or 60 seconds of total CPU usage (8434 points, 590 comments)
    2. How To Spot Toxic Software Jobs From Their Descriptions (6246 points, 1281 comments)
    3. A Facebook crawler was making 7M requests per day to my stupid website (2662 points, 426 comments)
    4. Apple, Your Developer Documentation is Garbage (2128 points, 432 comments)
    5. The code I’m still ashamed of (2016) (2105 points, 429 comments)
    6. Slack Is Fumbling Developers And The Rise Of Developer Discords (2095 points, 811 comments)
    7. The Chromium project finds that around 70% of our serious security bugs are memory safety problems. Our next major project is to prevent such bugs at source. (1959 points, 418 comments)
    8. Advice to Myself When Starting Out as a Software Developer (1934 points, 257 comments)
    9. Software patents are another kind of disease (1893 points, 419 comments)
    10. My favourite Git commit (1772 points, 206 comments)
  3. 35237 points, 28 submissions: whackri
    1. It is perfectly OK to only code at work, you can have a life too (6765 points, 756 comments)
    2. Kernighan's Law - Debugging is twice as hard as writing the code in the first place. Therefore, if you write the code as cleverly as possible, you are, by definition, not smart enough to debug it. (5171 points, 437 comments)
    3. The entire Apollo 11 computer code that helped get us to the Moon is available on github. (3841 points, 433 comments)
    4. Raytracing - in Excel! (2478 points, 168 comments)
    5. Writing userspace USB drivers for abandoned devices (1689 points, 84 comments)
    6. Drum Machine in Excel (1609 points, 60 comments)
    7. fork() can fail: this is important (1591 points, 264 comments)
    8. Learn how computers add numbers and build a 4 bit adder circuit (1548 points, 66 comments)
    9. Heroes Of Might And Magic III engine written from scratch (open source, playable) (1453 points, 84 comments)
    10. Apollo Guidance Computer: Restoring the computer that put man on the Moon (1277 points, 47 comments)
  4. 14588 points, 11 submissions: pimterry
    1. I'm a software engineer going blind, how should I prepare? (4237 points, 351 comments)
    2. The 2038 problem is already affecting some systems (1988 points, 518 comments)
    3. TLDR pages: Simplified, community-driven man pages (1897 points, 182 comments)
    4. JetBrains Mono: A Typeface for Developers (1728 points, 456 comments)
    5. BlurHash: extremely compact representations of image placeholders (930 points, 159 comments)
    6. Let's Destroy C (855 points, 290 comments)
    7. Shared Cache is Going Away (833 points, 192 comments)
    8. XML is almost always misused (766 points, 538 comments)
    9. Wireshark has a new packet diagram view (688 points, 24 comments)
    10. fork() can fail: this is important (460 points, 299 comments)
  5. 14578 points, 9 submissions: magenta_placenta
    1. Trello handed over user's personal account to user's previous company (2962 points, 489 comments)
    2. Feds: IBM did discriminate against older workers in making layoffs - “Analysis shows it was primarily older workers (85.85%) in the total potential pool of those considered for layoff,” the EEOC wrote (2809 points, 509 comments)
    3. Stripe Workers Who Relocate Get $20,000 Bonus and a Pay Cut - Stripe Inc. plans to make a one-time payment of $20,000 to employees who opt to move out of San Francisco, New York or Seattle, but also cut their base salary by as much as 10% (2765 points, 989 comments)
    4. US court fully legalized website scraping and technically prohibited it - On September 9, the U.S. 9th circuit court of Appeals ruled that web scraping public sites does not violate the CFAA (Computer Fraud and Abuse Act) (2014 points, 327 comments)
    5. I Suspect many Task Deadlines are Designed to Force Engineers to Work for Free (1999 points, 553 comments)
    6. Intent to Deprecate and Freeze: The User-Agent string (1012 points, 271 comments)
    7. Contractor admits planting logic bombs in his software to ensure he’d get new work (399 points, 182 comments)
    8. AlphaStar: Grandmaster level in StarCraft II using multi-agent reinforcement learning (396 points, 97 comments)
    9. Half of the websites using WebAssembly use it for malicious purposes - WebAssembly not that popular: Only 1,639 sites of the Top 1 Million use WebAssembly (222 points, 133 comments)
  6. 13750 points, 3 submissions: pedrovhb
    1. Bubble sort visualization (7218 points, 276 comments)
    2. Breadth-first search visualization (3874 points, 96 comments)
    3. Selection sort visualization (2658 points, 80 comments)
  7. 11833 points, 1 submission: flaming_bird
    1. 20GB leak of Intel data: whole Git repositories, dev tools, backdoor mentions in source code (11833 points, 956 comments)
  8. 11208 points, 10 submissions: PowerOfLove1985
    1. No cookie consent walls — and no, scrolling isn’t consent, says EU data protection body (5975 points, 890 comments)
    2. Redesigning uBlock Origin (1184 points, 162 comments)
    3. Playing Around With The Fuchsia Operating System (696 points, 164 comments)
    4. Microsoft's underwater data centre resurfaces after two years (623 points, 199 comments)
    5. Microsoft Paint/Paintbrush in Javascript (490 points, 58 comments)
    6. GitHub shuts off access to Aurelia repository, citing trade sanctions (478 points, 81 comments)
    7. How 3D Game Rendering Works: Texturing (475 points, 22 comments)
    8. Simdjson: Parsing Gigabytes of JSON per Second (441 points, 90 comments)
    9. How 1500 bytes became the MTU of the internet (435 points, 60 comments)
    10. It’s OK for your open source library to be a bit shitty (411 points, 130 comments)
  9. 10635 points, 8 submissions: michalg82
    1. Turning animations to 60fps using AI (3449 points, 234 comments)
    2. Bug #1463112 “Cat sitting on keyboard crashes lightdm” (3150 points, 143 comments)
    3. Heroes Of Might And Magic III engine written from scratch (open source, playable) (1431 points, 172 comments)
    4. Vulkan is coming to Raspberry Pi: first triangle - Raspberry Pi (1318 points, 66 comments)
    5. An EPYC trip to Rome: AMD is Cloudflare's 10th-generation Edge server CPU (431 points, 60 comments)
    6. Microsoft cancels GDC 2020 presence due to coronavirus concerns (Following Sony, Facebook, Kojima Productions, Epic Games, Unity, and more) (371 points, 52 comments)
    7. Moving from reCAPTCHA to hCaptcha - The Cloudflare Blog (278 points, 71 comments)
    8. How much of a genius-level move was using binary space partitioning in Doom? (207 points, 109 comments)
  10. 10106 points, 10 submissions: SerenityOS
    1. Someone suggested I should host my website on my own OS. For that we'll need a web server, so here's me building a basic web server in C++ for SerenityOS! (2269 points, 149 comments)
    2. I've been learning about OS security lately. Here's me making a local root exploit for SerenityOS, and then fixing the kernel bugs that made it possible! (1372 points, 87 comments)
    3. SerenityOS was hacked in a 36c3 CTF! (Exploit and write-up) (1236 points, 40 comments)
    4. One week ago, I started building a JavaScript engine for SerenityOS. Here’s me integrating it with the web browser and adding some simple API’s like alert()! (1169 points, 63 comments)
    5. Implementing macOS-style "purgeable memory" in my kernel. This technique is amazing and helps apps be better memory usage citizens! (1131 points, 113 comments)
    6. SerenityOS: The second year (900 points, 101 comments)
    7. Using my own C++ IDE to make a little program for decorating my webcam frame (571 points, 33 comments)
    8. This morning I ported git to SerenityOS. It took about an hour and some hacks, but it works! :D (547 points, 64 comments)
    9. Smarter C/C++ inlining with attribute((flatten)) (521 points, 118 comments)
    10. Introduction to SerenityOS GUI programming (390 points, 45 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. XANi_ (10753 points, 821 comments)
  2. dnew (7513 points, 641 comments)
  3. drysart (7479 points, 202 comments)
  4. MuonManLaserJab (6666 points, 233 comments)
  5. SanityInAnarchy (6331 points, 350 comments)
  6. AngularBeginner (6215 points, 59 comments)
  7. SerenityOS (5627 points, 128 comments)
  8. chucker23n (5465 points, 370 comments)
  9. IshKebab (4898 points, 393 comments)
  10. L3tum (4857 points, 199 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. 20GB leak of Intel data: whole Git repositories, dev tools, backdoor mentions in source code by flaming_bird (11833 points, 956 comments)
  2. hentAI: Detecting and removing censors with Deep Learning and Image Segmentation by 7cmStrangler (9621 points, 395 comments)
  3. US Politicians Want to Ban End-to-End Encryption by CarrotRobber (9427 points, 523 comments)
  4. From August, Chrome will start blocking ads that consume 4MB of network data, 15 seconds of CPU usage in any 30 second period, or 60 seconds of total CPU usage by speckz (8434 points, 590 comments)
  5. Mozilla: The Greatest Tech Company Left Behind by matthewpmacdonald (7566 points, 1087 comments)
  6. Bubble sort visualization by pedrovhb (7218 points, 276 comments)
  7. During lockdown my wife has been suffering mentally from pressure to stay at her desk 100% of the time otherwise after a few minutes her laptop locks and she is recorded as inactive. I wrote this small app to help her escape her desk by periodically moving the cursor. Hopefully it can help others. by silitbang6000 (7193 points, 855 comments)
  8. It is perfectly OK to only code at work, you can have a life too by whackri (6765 points, 756 comments)
  9. Blockchain, the amazing solution for almost nothing by imogenchampagne (6725 points, 1561 comments)
  10. Blockchain, the amazing solution for almost nothing by jessefrederik (6524 points, 1572 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 2975 points: deleted's comment in hentAI: Detecting and removing censors with Deep Learning and Image Segmentation
  2. 2772 points: I_DONT_LIE_MUCH's comment in 20GB leak of Intel data: whole Git repositories, dev tools, backdoor mentions in source code
  3. 2485 points: api's comment in Stripe Workers Who Relocate Get $20,000 Bonus and a Pay Cut - Stripe Inc. plans to make a one-time payment of $20,000 to employees who opt to move out of San Francisco, New York or Seattle, but also cut their base salary by as much as 10%
  4. 2484 points: a_false_vacuum's comment in Stack Overflow lays off 15%
  5. 2464 points: iloveparagon's comment in Google engineer breaks down the problems he uses when doing technical interviews. Lots of advice on algorithms and programming.
  6. 2384 points: why_not_both_bot's comment in During lockdown my wife has been suffering mentally from pressure to stay at her desk 100% of the time otherwise after a few minutes her laptop locks and she is recorded as inactive. I wrote this small app to help her escape her desk by periodically moving the cursor. Hopefully it can help others.
  7. 2293 points: ThatInternetGuy's comment in Iranian Maintainer refuses to merge code from Israeli Developer. Cites Iranian regulations.
  8. 2268 points: xequae's comment in I'm a software engineer going blind, how should I prepare?
  9. 2228 points: turniphat's comment in AWS forked my project and launched it as its own service
  10. 2149 points: Rami-Slicer's comment in 20GB leak of Intel data: whole Git repositories, dev tools, backdoor mentions in source code
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by flpezet to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

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submitted by anticensor_bot to u/anticensor_bot [link] [comments]

Frustrating talking to people who don't understand Bitcoin, but force their opinion

Just had a conversation with a friend of a friend who works in cyber security. She basically shit on Bitcoin security and said exchanges can be hacked, but she didn't understand what a hard wallet was when I tried to explain. Then she said the government will step in and take it over. I explained how the decentralization aspect is essentially the core of Bitcoin and that the government can't just come in and change that and that that's why Bitcoin is so special. This seemed over her heard. Then she proceeded to tell me it was just a ponzi scheme held up by market manipulation and will eventually crash when the market manipulators want it to. Finally, she said she when she heard about it in 2017 she assumed a Bitcoin would be worth 400 dollars max right now. I calmly tried to explain these things to her and it was in one ear out the other. I have experienced this a few times with people who for some reason adamantly dismiss Bitcoin for no valid reason and feel the need to force their thoughts down your throat and not listen to the truth. Guess it'll be her loss on the way to the moon
submitted by HairBones69 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

100 Days later. From noob to moons. I wrote this “guide” based on my journey into crypto.

It’s already been 100 days. What a ride it’s been. I created this account and joined this sub not long after I bought my very first ETH. That’s right, I skipped Bitcoin and my first foray into crypto was Ethereum. I was never sold on BTC and even when it was booming back in the day I didn’t feel like I missed out on anything. I just don’t believe in it if I’m being honest. I respect everything about Bitcoin and Satoshi (whoever you are) sounds like a genius and a revolutionary but I don’t see the use case potential with it. I consider Bitcoin like the Metallica of crypto, a little analogy for myself. I’m a big fan of bands like Tool and The Deftones and I give credit where it’s due to Metallica for paving the way for them to be able to make new music. Bitcoin started the movement but I was sold on the progressive thinkers that followed it. Ethereum is my main commitment and always will be. Vitalik is a very weird person and that is what drew me to it initially. I saw a Vice documentary when I was first looking into crypto to understand and they also included a bonus bit with him. Those were enough to spark my interest and it sort of sent me into a wormhole of research. That was back in March.
I like to think I’ve come a long way. Since I was unemployed I decided to spend my spare time studying crypto. I started with exchanges. Being from Canada my options definitely seemed limited, as a noob at least. Google helped most of the way by putting in things like “Ethereum explained” and “How to store crypto” which brought up a lot of useful information. Overwhelming to say the least. But I didn’t stop at the basics. No, no, no. It made me fascinated with blockchain as a technology beyond cryptocurrency. I read the Ethereum Whitepaper after the Bitcoin whitepaper because everyone should read that one. Satoshi started this, if you don’t understand why he(or she or however they identify) created Bitcoin then you will never understand cryptocurrency fully. Then it came time to buy some.
I initially tried eToro and was immediately hit with the “service not available in Canada” issue. So I searched exchanges in Canada and found Coinberry, Shakepay and the already defunct Quadriga. Thankfully the quadriga news was easy to search so it didn’t take long for me to become paranoid about my investments. Coinsquare was also an option that turned out to also be a scam. After eToro I tried Coinberry and I submitted my KYC info and all then crickets they ghosted me. I’d been in contact with customer service prior to submitting and they seemed fine until then. I persevered. Shakepay was next. Fingers were crossed going into this one. I chatted with Shakepay customer service for the better part of an hour on my first day. I asked all of the technical questions and also the stupid ones. I wanted transparency and got it from them. So I bought 1 whole ETH. Next I had to figure out a wallet.
This was difficult. I didn’t need a hardware wallet for 1 ETH, that was overkill. I learned early that the exchange isn’t safe “not your keys not your coins” is a common expression. So I found that middle ground in Atomic Wallet. I did a lot of searching before settling on them. Metamask was the other thought but when I had taken a solidity crash course I struggled with it and didn’t try again. The other wallet options I considered were Exodus Wallet and Guarda. I don’t want to break this down to a full wallet review but I will say that I use both Atomic and Exodus and they are great. I’ve never had an issue and the customer service communication has always been great. They’re transparent and helpful as long as you don’t try to attack them and blame them when you have issues.
What I liked about Atomic when I first looked into it was the very helpful knowledge base they’ve created. The embedded links are to the wallets respective educational resources. If you asked me I’d say people don’t spend enough time reading at least the FAQ of a wallet, exchange or app that they use. Personally, I have read just about every article on both Exodus and Atomic (aside from the ones that repeat the same thing) so that I don’t have to ask everything. If you do take some time, and not that much, you will see they state “We will never ask you to enter your seed for any reason” and that would prevent so many phishing scams, which is what happens when people think they’re hacked. I think it’s important that everyone takes a moment to read about how to avoid being phished. Also check this one about things like pump and dumps and ICO scams.
Now about the community. This place is awesome and I’m glad that I found this sub. It is certainly one of the best subs I’ve joined. I’m also subscribed to just about every single other crypto sub you can find, I like to know what’s going on in every project. I have my favourites and there are a few I’m certainly opposed to but I try to remain as unbiased as possible. I don’t let my investments influence my arguments because that makes it too emotionally driven. I argue with what I’ve read and learned about and am always willing to be told I’m wrong. The moons were such an important factor to that. When I first started into crypto I thought that moons would impact ETH price because I though “reddit is huge, everyone will want ETH after” but I was stupidly wrong. I would never think that again but I wanted to admit so everyone knows that we all start without basic knowledge in this. I wanted moons but my new account wasn’t allowed to post. I had to wait 50 days. What did I do? Engaged in other communities. I learned from other projects. Knowledge is power and it’s by learning and by gaining that knowledge before I could post it only took me 4 weeks to earn 35,000(nearest makes no difference) moons.
During my pre-posting time I read multiple whitepapers for projects like NEO, Ripple(to which I am known to be opposed to but bias aside I’ve listed), Stellar, Komodo, Vechain, [Cardano(not really a whitepaper more of a “why” paper)](https://[cardano.org/why/) and so many more.
I just wanted to link some so that people can read some varying whitepaper to get the differences in ideas. It’s tedious but these are the best ways to understand what’s going on and what the potential of blockchain is. I also got comfortable with reading charts because it’s important for learning trends. I don’t know all the technical terms and buzzwords for patterns but I recognize rhythm and patterns in things and combine that with my own best guess to figure out what to move for. I like statistics so it isn’t boring to me to read them. I mostly use Coingecko for tracking coins and the news section is great. I have made a list of favourites(my own top 40) and I check them daily. Multiple times daily to be honest. I also use Cointelegraph for news, I like their artwork. I also use decrypt because they tend to have more Ethereum and Altcoin news.
Anyway, this has gotten beyond long enough. I hope it is helpful to some. I kind of wish I had found a resource with everything I needed to know to get started in one easy place. There isn’t. But this is a good way to get started.
Thank you for reading. Everything I say is open to constructive criticism but let’s keep it sensible and respectful.
submitted by ethereumflow to u/ethereumflow [link] [comments]

I have been watching you for a while, you know. Wasn't sure whether to invest, but now I know that I must? (FUSION. Could have also prevented the Statera balancer hack?)

So this project caught my (and probably many other people's) attention at least once last year. Especially after the foundation had some of its funds stolen which saw the token's price tank massively. I kind of forgot about it until seeing it being veeeery low-key mentioned on TG again recently and it appears to have 5xed over the last few months, essentially returning back to its old price level, while still being relatively low cap. Also sitting nicely next to LTO (another actually professional, albeit slow-burning, project) on https://coinstats.network/, rising rapidly throughout the ranks over the last weeks. (The top three performers at the time of this post are VeChain, LTO, and FSN, as you can see at the right top.)
 
 
Anyway... I did some digging, and frankly, I feel like simply quoting Dejun Qian (leader of Fusion and also founder of BitSE, which later enabled the rise of VeChain), because he does an overall decent enough job at explaining the general gist behind Fusion -- a blockchain designed in particular with decentralized finance (DEFI) in mind:
 
 
Whereas...
 
 
...most of which (Time-Lock, DCRM and Quantum Swap) are patented. Although it should also be mentioned how the Telegram frequently questions the ability to enforce these patents. And depending on your personal outlook in regards to patents in the cryptospace, you could generally consider this a big negative point. Or, if you only care about money, a very positive one. With the latter likely aligning more with this sub's interests.
 
Anyway... Time-locking simply refers to you locking in any type of asset (real or digital) and then being able to lend it for some set amount of time (time-slice) without giving up ownership. This could have been useful in preventing, for example, the Statera Balancer hack, since you merely give up access to your asset for a certain amount of time while still retaining ownership yourself. E.g. you could have granted the Balancer 3 months of access to your assets. Whereas, had your assets been stolen by a bad actor within this time-frame as it happend in the Statera/Balancer case, you would still have received all of your assets back after these 3 months passed. No assets would have been lost on your end. So this mechanism, patented by Fusion, adds additional security. (Their Ticketed Proof of Stake (TPoS) mechanism works the same way -- You never risk actually losing your tokens forever. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FX57OwpNNMA )(Also: You are also free to correct me in case this doesn't actually work with Balancer's mechanics.)
 
In general, the borrowing of the (front end; now to some point in the future) time-slice finds application in finance what bonds, futures, options, etc is concerned, again making fusion a great choice for DEFI. To again cite Qian:
 
 
(If you're into this stuff, it's easy to just search for words such as "factoring" or "bank draft" or "clearing house" in the official Telegram channel https://t.me/FUSIONFoundation . Also in relationship to upcoming and borrowed FSN tokens, which can be combined to form whole FSN tokens.)
 
Another more concrete use-case would be, for example, the granting of access to a house's or car's digital lock without giving up direct ownership of these assets for a certain amount of time, after which said access will be returned to its owner. Additionally, it's also possible to resell parts of this access in case you no longer have any use for it. (E.g. if you license a software for 6 months, but suddenly decide to no longer have any use for it after a mere 2 months, you can resell the remaining 4 months that are left.)
 
 
Also worthy of mention might be some of the bigger Fusion-related DEFI (hype!) projects being built on the Fusion blockchain:
 
  • WeDefi, which aims to be, or allows for users to act as, a kind of decentralized bank; stream-lining lending/borrowing and other kinds of DEFI; will come as APP to the IOS and Play-Store for the Smartphone soon.
  • SMPCwallet. Will include DCRM dapps such as a multichain DEX, a multicustodial wallet, etc (fixing problems related to key exposure mentioned by Vitalik in an AMA linked later in this post)
  • Anyswap, a cross-chain/interoperability version of Uniswap. Qian suggests that it could in the future also serve a function similar to Compound, letting you pick up a collateral in exchange for the provision of liquidity. (Built on SMPCwallet AFAIK; a recent post shilling it here -> https://old.reddit.com/CryptoMoonShots/comments/hprd2p/anyswap_a_completely_decentralized_swap_exchange/)
  • An auto-loan platform by AXP
  • Realio and YAD Capital issuing digitized assets to be tokenized on the FSN blockchain. Meaning securities, etc. Currently they're trying to raise a $5mm tokenized fund. (Also worth mentioning here is that SolidX, who have experience and SEC connections working on a Bitcoin ETF, are part of Fusion's DCRM Alliance)
  • And more. https://www.fusion.org/partnerships hovering over the links gives some input. xDLT is built on fusion, for instance, offering an interoperable form of etherscan. (To my understanding...)
 
Then here's a great AMA you should read: https://fsnfeed.com/2020/05/23/on-23st-of-may-2020-dj-qian-ceo-of-fusion-foundation-had-a-live-ama-session-with-kevin-of-ama-series-stayhome/
 
And if you want to try out Fusion, you can sign up at WeDefi and play around with borrowed tokens and even earn full tokens by doing so. Take note, however, that only full tokens may be staked, should you plan to do so. ( https://www.wedefi.com/faq )
 
 
As for the FSN token value, it would appreciate simply by virtue of gas fees, staking, DCRM which can be licensed in exchange for 800k FSN, potential applications of time-locking relative to assets and the Fusion token (looking at safebet, for instance), etc... as Fusion is adopted. The staking ROI is currently at 23%. (I can't really make a prediction about the token's value development here, since the entire system and the potential applications really exceed my knowledge. And, being crypto, odds are that putting a price on it might be impossible for just about anyone.)
 
The best way of storing FSN is whallet, which can be used in conjunction with your Ledger's Ethereum app. (MyFusionWallet was experiencing synchronization problems the other day, but seems to be working perfectly fine again as of the time of this post.)
 
 
A relatively big negative point frequently mentioned by the community is the lack of marketing and the team losing its first-mover advantage, which is a concern the Fusion team has recently tried to address. As REN, for instance, which allows for but a portion of Fusion's use case such as an allegedly inferior version of DCRM and dark pools/clearing houses (and according to the Fusion community of course worse), has recently gone on a small bullrun of its own. Much to the chagrin of disillusioned Fusion bagholders. And I've personally also seen TrustSwap make an appearance, which appears to aim for the creation of a crosschain version of UniSwap much akin to AnySwap. (I'm not 100% sure about this, however.)
 
If you have any personal opinions, you are free to share them. Maybe you consider it obsolete in the future, especially if we do end up in a "one chain takes all" scenario? Alternatively you could be holding the belief that it can moon simply due to the #defi hype? Perhaps there's not enough marketing on the team's part? Or is FSN really under the radar, being ignored (and thus massively undervalued) for the time being only because the features offered by FSN are not yet fully appreciated in the still fledgling DEFI space, with ETH simply not being suitable for DEFI, and FSN suddenly making an appearance in the top 35 without anyone having noticed? Etc? Any disgruntled bagholders here who want to vent or add something I forgot? Now's your chance.
 
 
P.S.: All this is probably also a relatively superficial explaination that doesn't capture the project's value in a way people like Qian could explain it, especially what the use of time-slices (both front and back, and their combination), the long-term renting and valuation of front-slices, and the number of financial applications, is concerned... but I hope it serves as a good general overview, also what references to other DEFI projects is concerned. And it has taken off a bit recently, like many projects in this mini-bull run. So some people may no longer consider it low cap. But I'm still gonna post it so it doesn't go to waste. Lol. At the very least it might serve as general overview. That and the sub rules state "cryptos out of the top 100.")
 
Also disclaimer: I am holding a decently sized bag myself. (And I really hoped it wouldn't cross 70 cent so "soon," all things considered...)
submitted by sotaponi to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

IOTA funds were stolen (3.49Ti ~500k$) on 12th March 2020 after network relaunch [longread]

Hey CC comunity!
First of all, sorry for posting it a bit late I have some serious changes in my lifestyle and business due to Coronavirus situation in the world. For those who are infected I wish to get well soon and all the rest to stay safe and to stay home.
Here is my short story:On March 12th I made similar but short post regarding my stolen IOTA in the sub IOTA. First of all I met around 50% downvotes, I don’t know why but it seems that IOTA’s community don’t want to see posts regarding stolen IOTA, I got a lot of critics for using Trinity wallet instead of hardware and so on. But I see nothing strange using desktop wallet and it doesn’t matter whether it is IOTA Trinity or Bitcoin QT or Ethereum wallet unless in has strong manually typed password, VPN connection and some other security things. Or maybe IOTA’s community was afraid of unwanted bad attention during that market crash that day. So because of that experience I decided to make a post here at CC.
Some short reminder of what happened before my funds got stolen (https://status.iota.org)
Some news:https://www.coindesk.com/iota-foundation-suspends-network-probes-fund-theft-in-trinity-wallethttps://cointelegraph.com/news/iota-foundation-investigates-funds-allegedly-stolen-from-trinity-walletshttps://www.theblockcrypto.com/post/55955/iota-foundation-funds-stolen-users-of-trinity-wallet
If you don’t want to read that news here are some facts with timestamp:
February 12th 2020 - 18:55
As a precaution we ask you to keep your Trinity wallet closed for now.
February 12th 2020 - 19:20
After initial investigation we decided to turn off the Coordinator to make sure no further theft can occur until we find out the root cause of these thefts. (Lets say: “blockchain stopped”)
February 14th 2020 - 17:50
We have found the exploit.
February 15th 2020 - 00:50
After successfully identifying the attack on Trinity through a third-party integration
February 17th 2020 - 02:23
We have just released a safe version of Trinity Desktop to allow users to check their balance and transactions. This version (1.4.1) removes the vulnerability announced on 12th February 2020. (I’ve installed this particular version)
February 21st 2020 - 18:43
ACTION MAY BE REQUIRED TO PROTECT YOUR TOKENS IN TRINITY.
February 24th I left my country for some working trip
February 26th 2020 - 13:10
We are currently in the testing phase of the migration tools, once testing completes the tools will be audited by a external party. If this all goes well we are aiming to release these tools later this week.
February 29th 2020 - 19:15
The Seed Migration Tool is now available.
March 6th 2020 - 15:17
REMINDER: You have until 5PM (UTC), Saturday, 7th March to migrate your seed.
I’m still out of the country but I’m pretty sure I’m safe coz I’ve installed 1.4.1 wallet which removes the vulnerability.
March 8th 2020 - 18:15
The migration period has ended.
I got back to my country
March 10th 2020 - 16:45
We are aiming to resume value transactions around 5PM CET today.
March 10th 2020 - 18:15
The network coordinator has resumed operation. (Let’s say “blockchain restarted”)
Now my turn:
My balance by that time (https://imgur.com/EJiB6it)
March 10th
I’ve decided to send my IOTA to exchange until I buy Hardware wallet and sort it out how it worksTest transaction to exchange 5Gi:JQ9DZPGUFLBJTLDLIKQBWLUBOXJULKIQFSWKNYVFIHETSZJOTGRYEZZELE9BZFVUEBGATEITPDTXXHZVD
It took exchange 24 hours to credit it to my balance…
March 11thFirst large transaction to the exchange (~23% of my net holdings of IOTA) 1Ti9YGGTHDKARCBVEPWUYURYEAKSKUNITGCGKSCJRXBVKHLBHEXXTNAWOFNPOBGHG9IKCZRABFNBJHVWNZIZ
All over again… 24h to credit it to my balance.
March 12th
I’ve opened my Trinity wallet and found out that money were stolen 3.4TiPOUBLIDSDZSNLKYBHVDAAEGVKGZ9PGKCBKRGUKEKIUQGSEWZNBQCHLLKIAZKEYHJVGJD9GYHT9JJNY9VW
screenshot of transaction with stolen IOTA (https://imgur.com/DtXbjOs)
All performed transactions (https://imgur.com/M8Qj2jC)
Same day I’ve made first post on reddit to get some attention to the happened situation. At the same time I’ve start to search for some technical support through over official telegram groups:
iotatangle
(https://imgur.com/McmrF3L)I’ve send a message where I’ve stated that my funds were stolen after network relaunch. Got some response from user Basti he invited me to another group with general discussion.screen shot 1 (https://imgur.com/hvDuoQA)screen shot 2 (https://imgur.com/MewdNm5)
Our short dialogue continued at the general discussion group iotacafe
(https://imgur.com/e9ErcPW) Where Basti introduced me to the IOTA Foundation member Antonio Nardella (https://imgur.com/WxZRk8N)
Before I started my conversation with Antonio I decide to get some information about him. I’ve found a Medium post with some welcoming words to Antonio Nardella.
(https://imgur.com/KK4zoOv) telegram(https://imgur.com/VquNCpi) medium
Seems legit.
Of course I couldn't be 100% sure it was him but the information he asked for wasn’t really sensitive so decided to share all I knew and all I did.
(https://imgur.com/X3Ha02Q) He also mentioned a wallet integrated service MoonPay, whether I used the wallet with this service or not and it didn’t matter if I used the service it self.
I’ve informed him that I used 1.4.1 wallet which was recommended to install on February 17th 2020(https://imgur.com/iZdNcm7)
When he gathered all the necessary information regarding loss of funds he took the time for sending this information for investigation team.
After a long awaited answer I got the same day this:
“Hello, I was informed that the loss of tokens is associated to the person/team responsible for the Trinity wallet attack via a third-party dependency from Moonpay.
As suggested on https://status.iota.org/, please file a report with the local police and to cite the following case number when doing so: LKA Berlin, Center for Cybercrime, case number: 200213-1717-i00290.”(https://imgur.com/Gov1v0i)
So, reinstalling the wallet didn't help me to avoid the loss of funds.
Well if my funds are proved to be stolen then it means - yes, I’ve used the Trinity wallet between the December 17th 2019 and the February 17th 2020. And yes, I wasn’t able to make seed transition during the given period. I was out of the country starting form Feb 24th till March 8th. I can even proove it with my border passing stamps… You know I didn’t use to take 4.5Ti with me just in case I would need an urgent seed transition. Could you imagine thousands of people with their multimillion Bitcoin holdings carrying private keys everyday with them just in case they would need seed transition… The funds were stolen not by my mistake but IOTA developers/foundation/etc (lets say IOTA team) mistake.
At the end of my story I want to take your attention to the fact that I didn’t compromise my PC neither wallet nor password nor seed. All my fault was for using the desktop wallet… How can you imagine your user without using your software/services/etc… I want to publicly call IOTA team (especially mr David Sonstebo) to cover not only those which were to happen back in the Feb 2020 but all the loses which were caused by that wallet vulnerability. (https://www.coindesk.com/iota-founder-personally-refunding-hack-losses-to-safeguard-projects-remaining-reserve)
Thanks for reading and thanks for your time!
submitted by blockchainified to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

I had over a quarter of 1 BTC, any hope?

Hi,
I'm from UK, devastated that I loss over over 0.25 bitcoin. Will I get that back and if so what are the likely steps for claimants and in what likely timescales in the future am I looking at?
If BTC price moons or reach new ATH will I get back my original BTC or New Zealand dollars value at time of the hack?
submitted by very_452001 to Cryptopia [link] [comments]

Project X

Wanted: A puppet master and lieutenant (assistant) to take ownership of this project. Be warned, this is a seriously woo-woo initiative - enough to make Gail Bradbrook feel she's fallen into a bath of Golden Dragon microdots at Willy Wonka's acid factory!
Ideal candidate should have more than a passing interest in Aleister Crowley and Jack Parson's work. If you on the same wavelength as Robert Anton Wilson, then this is for you. Definitely DON'T take this on if you easily gaslight yourself, because it's almost guaranteed that you won't get far before you get really spooked. This is definitely not for the fainthearted.
Outline: Essentially it's quite simple. It's involves organizing two different open-invitation, Full Moon parties simultaneously at two different parts of the world.
Location 1: Coordinates: 40.252053, -109.891139
Location 2: Coordinates: 62.7933 11.1883
Invitees are told that during the party they will participate in two experiments. The first experiment is to attempt to establish a mutual telepathic link to the attendees at the other location. The second is to try to create a HEMP over the Northwest Passage using only the collective power of the human mind and voice (with a small assist from natural ion-acoustic waves and geo-piezoelectricity). Obviously no admittance to anyone who has a phone without a Faraday Fone Jacket™. And no substitutes allowed - especially fakes like these that can be secretly monitored, activated and hacked by FVEY and other ACABs.
The event is billed as: “The Project to Open a Portal Through the Great Filter for the Human Ape.”
Byline is a (mis-)quote from Carl Sagan: "We are a way for the Cosmos to know itself. K'widzawidzi nia?"
FAQ: Complete background info to this project can be obtained here. Any questions you may have should be directed there and any inquiries from others should be directed to that website. Apologies for the paywall, but trolls will be trolls!
Obviously one of the first questions people will ask is, "Can/should this be done during a pandemic?"
The answer is that this is the perfect time to do this. The entertainment scene is a desert! Some of the qualities intended to be developed with this project are bravery, independence-of-mind, initiative and creativity. So even getting to one of the the venues during a pandemic will demonstrate a certain level of commitment and courage, not to mention a sense of achievement at having turned up. Attendees should be strongly discouraged from using commercial travel options to get there. Perhaps there could be a competition on the side to see who can get to their chosen venue using the lowest carbon emissions per parsec.
Another obvious question is, "What's the point of all this stupid crap?"
If you are one of those people that are confident that there is no planetary emergency, the Methane Dragon is just alarmist bunk, and there is no Sixth Mass Extinction going on, then this truly is a complete waste of time. And if you are one of those people that think they can avoid the collapse of global industrial civilization and the ecosystem by hiding behind a solar panel, tilting at wind turbines or making a getaway in your electric vehicle, that's fine. Passengers on the Titanic were also delusional at first.
But if you've figured out that the Third Rock from the Sun is really now just the equivalent of a big RMS Titanic orbiting in space, you ought to consider what will happened when people finally start catching up with reality. At that point it's easy to imagine that the sound of about 8 billion people dying in anguish will echo right across the Galaxy. Faced with such a ghastly reality, it might be kinder for visionary adults like you to help give at least some of them the gift of an alternate reality. And this project is part of that kind of Deep-Adaptation-as-a-game. Even a disaster can be fun, if it's approached in the right way.
Mull it over, and I'm sure you'll see the wisdom of it. How else would you spend your time when you realize we are all just helpless passengers on Benighted Scarelines Fright 093 ?
Remuneration: The sky's the limit for this one. Revenue potential in fiat and Bitcoin really depends on how many people attend. It might turn into an annual event, and become something like Burning Man. It could potentially be a gold mine. If it takes off, we might offer an equal exchange of Geo$ for fiat or bitcoin later.
As usual the normal convention applies - you take a modest amount for your subsistence and return the surplus back to The Game.
Good luck! And have fun!
submitted by LordHughRAdumbass to xrmed [link] [comments]

Kava CDP Mainnet Resources (USDX Minting, BNB for DeFi Lending, etc)

Interested in learning more about Kava's June 10th launch of its CDP Mainnet? Well, check out these links & guides! Most relevant are bolded!

Educational

Guides
All About BNB As Kava's 1st Supported Asset! [The Who, How, When, Where, & Why]
All About Crypto Paydays! (Deep Dive) [The Kava DeFi Lending Rewards Program]
All About Kava’s DeFi Lending [DeFi Lending For Beginners!]
Information
June 10th CDP Mainnet Launch [Kava's DeFi Lending Platform Goes Live]
All About Binance Margin Trading Competition! [The Tesla Cyber Truck]
Crypto Payday (Quick Dive) [The BNB Pre-Registration Campaign]
Resources
List of Official Binance & Kava Docs [Announcements, and Dev Tools]
Frequently Asked Questions [DeFi Lending Section]
Recap of Kava x Binance English AMA [From May 28th, 2020]

Links

Official Announcements
Latest Kava Status Update [Published: June 30th, 2020 on Kava Medium]
Kava's CDP Announcement [Kava ANN From Their Medium Blog]
Official Binance/Kava Joint PR [Regarding The June 10th CDP Mainnet Launch]
Trade KAVA to Win a Tesla Cybertruck and $27,800 in KAVA Tokens! [Published: June 9th, 2020 on Binance.com]
Binance Will Support the Upcoming Kava (KAVA) Mainnet Upgrade [Published: June 8th, 2020 on Binance.com]
Binance Enables Isolated Margin Trading for KAVA [Published: June 4th, 2020 on Binance.com]
Binance Savings Adds KAVA to Flexible Savings [Published: June 5th, 2020 on Binance.com]
Binance Research Report on Kava Labs [Published: June 15th, 2020 on Binance.com
General News Coverage

YouTube Coverage
submitted by Kava_Mod to KavaUSDX [link] [comments]

[H] A Metric Ton of Steam Games [W] Games from My Wishlist or Cash Moneys

First time posting here, so I'll link you my reps.
244 +rep on SteamTrades
154 successful trades on Barter
Almost 200 confirmed transactions in DigitalCodeSell
Have:
Want: It's bad enough you had to look through all that, I'm not posting my entire wishlist here. 6000+ titles, so yeah, not happening. I can't think of much I really really want, so I'll leave those I do here and let you make me an offer. I'm open to offers for anything I don't already have except DLC for games I don't own. I'm not interested in any Origin, UPlay, or Epic Games Store keys, I only want Steam keys. Or money. I like money too.
Tilt Brush
Resident Evil 7 Gold Edition
Beat Saber
submitted by SameIQAsMyPetRock to SteamGameSwap [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Hack Tool - Get your Bitcoins for free ! FREE NEW BITCOIN MONEY GENERATOR How To Make Money With Moonbit.co.in ( Moon bitcoin Best Bitcoin Faucet) Bitcoin Hack 2020 Moon-Bitcoin : Earn Free BTC! - 5000 Satoshi pre Day.

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