Bitcoin Cash / Transactions — Blockchair

Putting $400M of Bitcoin on your company balance sheet

Also posted on my blog as usual. Read it there if you can, there are footnotes and inlined plots.
A couple of months ago, MicroStrategy (MSTR) had a spare $400M of cash which it decided to shift to Bitcoin (BTC).
Today we'll discuss in excrutiating detail why this is not a good idea.
When a company has a pile of spare money it doesn't know what to do with, it'll normally do buybacks or start paying dividends. That gives the money back to the shareholders, and from an economic perspective the money can get better invested in other more promising companies. If you have a huge pile of of cash, you probably should be doing other things than leave it in a bank account to gather dust.
However, this statement from MicroStrategy CEO Michael Saylor exists to make it clear he's buying into BTC for all the wrong reasons:
“This is not a speculation, nor is it a hedge. This was a deliberate corporate strategy to adopt a bitcoin standard.”
Let's unpack it and jump into the economics Bitcoin:

Is Bitcoin money?

No.
Or rather BTC doesn't act as money and there's no serious future path for BTC to become a form of money. Let's go back to basics. There are 3 main economic problems money solves:
1. Medium of Exchange. Before money we had to barter, which led to the double coincidence of wants problem. When everyone accepts the same money you can buy something from someone even if they don't like the stuff you own.
As a medium of exchange, BTC is not good. There are significant transaction fees and transaction waiting times built-in to BTC and these worsen the more popular BTC get.
You can test BTC's usefulness as a medium of exchange for yourself right now: try to order a pizza or to buy a random item with BTC. How many additional hurdles do you have to go through? How many fewer options do you have than if you used a regular currency? How much overhead (time, fees) is there?
2. Unit of Account. A unit of account is what you compare the value of objects against. We denominate BTC in terms of how many USD they're worth, so BTC is a unit of account presently. We can say it's because of lack of adoption, but really it's also because the market value of BTC is so volatile.
If I buy a $1000 table today or in 2017, it's roughly a $1000 table. We can't say that a 0.4BTC table was a 0.4BTC table in 2017. We'll expand on this in the next point:
3. Store of Value. When you create economic value, you don't want to be forced to use up the value you created right away.
For instance, if I fix your washing machine and you pay me in avocados, I'd be annoyed. I'd have to consume my payment before it becomes brown, squishy and disgusting. Avocado fruit is not good money because avocadoes loses value very fast.
On the other hand, well-run currencies like the USD, GBP, CAD, EUR, etc. all lose their value at a low and most importantly fairly predictible rate. Let's look at the chart of the USD against BTC
While the dollar loses value at a predictible rate, BTC is all over the place, which is bad.
One important use money is to write loan contracts. Loans are great. They let people spend now against their future potential earnings, so they can buy houses or start businesses without first saving up for a decade. Loans are good for the economy.
If you want to sign something that says "I owe you this much for that much time" then you need to be able to roughly predict the value of the debt in at the point in time where it's due.
Otherwise you'll have a hard time pricing the risk of the loan effectively. This means that you need to charge higher interests. The risk of making a loan in BTC needs to be priced into the interest of a BTC-denominated loan, which means much higher interest rates. High interests on loans are bad, because buying houses and starting businesses are good things.

BTC has a fixed supply, so these problems are built in

Some people think that going back to a standard where our money was denominated by a stock of gold (the Gold Standard) would solve economic problems. This is nonsense.
Having control over supply of your currency is a good thing, as long as it's well run.
See here
Remember that what is desirable is low variance in the value, not the value itself. When there are wild fluctuations in value, it's hard for money to do its job well.
Since the 1970s, the USD has been a fiat money with no intrinsic value. This means we control the supply of money.
Let's look at a classic poorly drawn econ101 graph
The market price for USD is where supply meets demand. The problem with a currency based on an item whose supply is fixed is that the price will necessarily fluctuate in response to changes in demand.
Imagine, if you will, that a pandemic strikes and that the demand for currency takes a sharp drop. The US imports less, people don't buy anything anymore, etc. If you can't print money, you get deflation, which is worsens everything. On the other hand, if you can make the money printers go brrrr you can stabilize the price
Having your currency be based on a fixed supply isn't just bad because in/deflation is hard to control.
It's also a national security risk...
The story of the guy who crashed gold prices in North Africa
In the 1200s, Mansa Munsa, the emperor of the Mali, was rich and a devout Muslim and wanted everyone to know it. So he embarked on a pilgrimage to make it rain all the way to Mecca.
He in fact made it rain so hard he increased the overall supply of gold and unintentionally crashed gold prices in Cairo by 20%, wreaking an economic havoc in North Africa that lasted a decade.
This story is fun, the larger point that having your inflation be at the mercy of foreign nations is an undesirable attribute in any currency. The US likes to call some countries currency manipulators, but this problem would be serious under a gold standard.

Currencies are based on trust

Since the USD is based on nothing except the US government's word, how can we trust USD not to be mismanaged?
The answer is that you can probably trust the fed until political stooges get put in place. Currently, the US's central bank managing the USD, the Federal Reserve (the Fed for friends & family), has administrative authority. The fed can say "no" to dumb requests from the president.
People who have no idea what the fed does like to chant "audit the fed", but the fed is already one of the best audited US federal entities. The transcripts of all their meetings are out in the open. As is their balance sheet, what they plan to do and why. If the US should audit anything it's the Department of Defense which operates without any accounting at all.
It's easy to see when a central bank will go rogue: it's when political yes-men are elected to the board.
For example, before printing themselves into hyperinflation, the Venezuelan president appointed a sociologist who publicly stated “Inflation does not exist in real life” and instead is a made up capitalist lie. Note what happened mere months after his gaining control over the Venezuelan currency
This is a key policy. One paper I really like, Sargent (1984) "The end of 4 big inflations" states:
The essential measures that ended hyperinflation in each of Germany,Austria, Hungary, and Poland were, first, the creation of an independentcentral bank that was legally committed to refuse the government'sdemand or additional unsecured credit and, second, a simultaneousalteration in the fiscal policy regime.
In english: *hyperinflation stops when the central bank can say "no" to the government."
The US Fed, like other well good central banks, is run by a bunch of nerds. When it prints money, even as aggressively as it has it does so for good reasons. You can see why they started printing on March 15th as the COVID lockdowns started:
The Federal Reserve is prepared to use its full range of tools to support the flow of credit to households and businesses and thereby promote its maximum employment and price stability goals.
In english: We're going to keep printing and lowering rates until jobs are back and inflation is under control. If we print until the sun is blotted out, we'll print in the shade.

BTC is not gold

Gold is a good asset for doomsday-preppers. If society crashes, gold will still have value.
How do we know that?
Gold has held value throughout multiple historic catastrophes over thousands of years. It had value before and after the Bronze Age Collapse, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and Gengis Khan being Gengis Khan.
Even if you erased humanity and started over, the new humans would still find gold to be economically valuable. When Europeans d̶i̶s̶c̶o̶v̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ c̶o̶n̶q̶u̶e̶r̶e̶d̶ g̶e̶n̶o̶c̶i̶d̶e̶d̶ went to America, they found gold to be an important item over there too. This is about equivalent to finding humans on Alpha-Centauri and learning that they think gold is a good store of value as well.
Some people are puzzled at this: we don't even use gold for much! But it has great properties:
First, gold is hard to fake and impossible to manufacture. This makes it good to ascertain payment.
Second, gold doesnt react to oxygen, so it doesn't rust or tarnish. So it keeps value over time unlike most other materials.
Last, gold is pretty. This might sound frivolous, and you may not like it, but jewelry has actual value to humans.
It's no coincidence if you look at a list of the wealthiest families, a large number of them trade in luxury goods.
To paraphrase Veblen humans have a profound desire to signal social status, for the same reason peacocks have unwieldy tails. Gold is a great way to achieve that.
On the other hand, BTC lacks all these attributes. Its value is largely based on common perception of value. There are a few fundamental drivers of demand:
Apart from these, it's hard to argue that BTC will retain value throughout some sort of economic catastrophe.

BTC is really risky

One last statement from Michael Saylor I take offense to is this:
“We feel pretty confident that Bitcoin is less risky than holding cash, less risky than holding gold,” MicroStrategy CEO said in an interview
"BTC is less risky than holding cash or gold long term" is nonsense. We saw before that BTC is more volatile on face value, and that as long as the Fed isn't run by spider monkeys stacked in a trench coat, the inflation is likely to be within reasonable bounds.
But on top of this, BTC has Abrupt downside risks that normal currencies don't. Let's imagine a few:

Blockchain solutions are fundamentally inefficient

Blockchain was a genius idea. I still marvel at the initial white paper which is a great mix of economics and computer science.
That said, blockchain solutions make large tradeoffs in design because they assume almost no trust between parties. This leads to intentionally wasteful designs on a massive scale.
The main problem is that all transactions have to be validated by expensive computational operations and double checked by multiple parties. This means waste:
Many design problems can be mitigated by various improvements over BTC, but it remains that a simple database always works better than a blockchain if you can trust the parties to the transaction.
submitted by VodkaHaze to badeconomics [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Newcomers FAQ - Please read!

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
It all started with the release of the release of Satoshi Nakamoto's whitepaper however that will probably go over the head of most readers so we recommend the following videos for a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
Some other great resources include Lopp.net, the Princeton crypto series and James D'Angelo's Bitcoin 101 Blackboard series.
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found at the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute.
Some Bitcoin statistics can be found here and here. Developer resources can be found here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here.
Potential upcoming protocol improvements and scaling resources here and here.
The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here (LOL!)

Key properties of Bitcoin

Where can I buy bitcoins?

Bitcoin.org and BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin (even just a few dollars worth) and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy OTP Auth
Android Android N/A
iOS iOS iOS

Watch out for scams

As mentioned above, Bitcoin is decentralized, which by definition means there is no official website or Twitter handle or spokesperson or CEO. However, all money attracts thieves. This combination unfortunately results in scammers running official sounding names or pretending to be an authority on YouTube or social media. Many scammers throughout the years have claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin. Websites like bitcoin(dot)com and the btc subreddit are active scams. Almost all altcoins (shitcoins) are marketed heavily with big promises but are really just designed to separate you from your bitcoin. So be careful: any resource, including all linked in this document, may in the future turn evil. Don't trust, verify. Also as they say in our community "Not your keys, not your coins".

Where can I spend bitcoins?

Check out spendabit or bitcoin directory for millions of merchant options. Also you can spend bitcoin anywhere visa is accepted with bitcoin debit cards such as the CashApp card. Some other useful site are listed below.
Store Product
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
Spendabit, Overstock and The Bitcoin Directory Retail shopping with millions of results
ShakePay Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds
NewEgg and Dell For all your electronics needs
Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Coinsfer, and more Bill payment
Menufy, Takeaway and Thuisbezorgd NL Takeout delivered to your door
Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia, Abitsky, SkyTours, the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats For when you need to get away
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap, Porkbun Domain name registration
Stampnik Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Coinmap and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. If you would prefer to keep it simple there are several good options. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
Site Description
WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, Cryptogrind, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, BitforTip, Rein Project Freelancing
Lolli Earn bitcoin when you shop online!
OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market Marketplaces
/GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW Adult services
A-ads, Coinzilla.io Advertising
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins.

Bitcoin-Related Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network Second layer scaling
Blockstream, Rootstock and Drivechain Sidechains
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
JoinMarket and Wasabi Wallet CoinJoin implementation
Coinffeine and Bisq Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase Identity & Reputation management
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
bitcoin BTC 1 bitcoin one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $10000 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit.
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by BitcoinFan7 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Switzerland is good for business development as it is located in the center of Europe

Switzerland is good for business development as it is located in the center of Europe
Switzerland is good for business development as it is located in the center of Europe. It is convenient to get there for meetings with European partners. A prestigious jurisdiction is especially important for crypto companies that work with customers' money.
Today we will talk about Crypto Valley. What is it and why will Simba be based there?
We have already spoken about the fact that in 2016 the authorities of the city of Zug launched an experiment: they offered residents the option to pay for utilities and government services with bitcoins. Then, Swiss Railways allowed passengers to exchange cash for cryptocurrency in ticket machines. Local officials are satisfied with the pilot project and continue to introduce blockchain into the daily life of residents. There are over a hundred fintech startups operating in Zug now. According to PwC, every 11th fintech startup on the planet opens in Zug.
Due to the cluster of decentralized startups, the canton has been nicknamed Crypto Valley (http://gdi.ch/media/cryptovalleymap_impuls_v2.pdf). The following are located there: the headquarters of the Ethereum blockchain platform; the Monetas cryptocurrency payment system; Bancor, the platform for creating new cryptocurrencies; Bitcoin Suisse AG, the Bitcoin ATM network operator; the Xapo bitcoin wallet provider; the ShapeShift cryptocurrency exchange; and the Lisk blockchain platform, which is competing with Ethereum.
The Crypto Valley Association has (https://cryptovalley.swiss/) recently been established in Crypto Valley. It is engaged in the development of an ecosystem for decentralized technologies, prepares proposals for regulators, launches research projects and organizes events. The association brings together large companies (Luxoft, UBS, PwC, ConsenSys, Monetas and Thomson Reuters), investors, the Zug government, the University of Lucerne, and blockchain startups.
On the map below, you can see where the Swiss company Simba will be registered: 130 meters from #Ethereum #Foundation near #Tezos #Foundation and #Bitcoin #Suisse
Lion Simba chooses only the best locations for itself!
https://preview.redd.it/3tbej7h25ch51.jpg?width=1264&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5eb540310fffbdd0b7d7f89eacb23a071d9a2026
submitted by simba_official to simba_official [link] [comments]

What is an ATM network and how is PZMCash going to use it?

What is an ATM network and how is PZMCash going to use it?
Hello, community. 👋🏻 Today we will tell you about crypto ATMs and their features.
💳 What is an ATM?
ATM is an electronic telecommunications device that allows customers from financial institutions to withdraw cash, replenish deposits, make money transfers, and also receive account information. At the same time, ATMs are designed for self-service, are always available, and eliminate the need to visit a bank branch. In most modern ATMs, customers are identified using plastic cards (or some other acceptable payment card) with a PIN code.
💳 Benefits of Using ATM
Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit accounts, manage their money without having to visit the bank and stand in line, they also provide the opportunity to quickly recharge a card or mobile phone. ATMs are also used to withdraw cash in a foreign country, even if the money on the card is in a different currency, they are simply converted according to the exchange rate.
💳 Cryptocurrency ATM and their features
With the development of information technology, the advent of blockchain, and the increasing popularity of cryptocurrencies, the emergence of cryptocurrency ATMs was a natural step. Of course, most of the crypto ATMs belong to the main cryptocurrency - Bitcoin. Bitcoin ATM is primarily intended for exchanging cash for cryptocurrencies, however, part of the machines (about 30%) also offer the possibility of withdrawing cryptocurrencies into cash fiat money. Bitcoin ATMs are machines that are connected to the Internet, which allows you to enter cash in exchange for cryptocurrency, the amount of which is indicated on a paper receipt. In doing so, they charge a transaction fee.

🎯 PZMCash is planning to create an ATM network for the convenience of users of PZM currency, who can withdraw personal funds by exchanging PZMC for fiat, replenish their crypto wallets, buying PZMC, check the status of a personal account, and more. Since PZMCash is a means of payment, we also plan to issue our own plastic debit card in Q1.2021.
Follow us on social media not to miss new exciting updates on PZMCash project!
PZMCash website: https://pzmcash.com/en/
PZMCash Whitepaper: https://pzmcash.com/docs/WP_MARCH2020_ENG.pdf
https://preview.redd.it/2ktpy6dzno551.png?width=5001&format=png&auto=webp&s=f78959044338d0c9ba7c12c5b5eb4f011dbc3990
submitted by PZMCash to PZMCash [link] [comments]

What I currently use for privacy

So this is what software I currently use for privacy, would like some opinions if possible:
Starting with my cellphone, my device is a Google Pixel 3A XL with GrapheneOS flashed, I have the following apps installed:
F-Droid and AuroraOSS (as my app stores), NewPipe (youtube client), Vanadium (web browser), Tutanota and K-9 Mail (for e-mails), OsmAnd+ (for maps), Joplin (notes), Open Camera (camera), OpenBoard and Mozc for Android (Keyboard and Japanese Keyboard), Aegis Authenticator, KeePassDX (password manager), LibreTorrent (torrent client), Librera PRO (pdf/epub/mobi reader, I don't own a Kindle nor want to own one so I use my cellphone to read), Tachiyomi (manga reader), Signal (for messaging), Vinyl Music Player, VLC, Simple Gallery Pro and Simple Calendar Pro (I prefer them over stock Graphene options) and I also use Electrum and Samourai (Bitcoin Wallet) and Monerujo (Monero Wallet)
I also have OpenVPN (for VPN) and use a private DNS for ad and tracking blocking (provided by my VPN provider)
I have 3-4 PCs, will go over every single one of them:
my main PC is a desktop PC (that I built myself) that I mainly use for working and other tasks.
It runs Artix Linux (basically Arch Linux without systemd), I use UFW as my firewall (denying all incoming and also denying all outgoing only allowing what is useful) and I also use AppArmor Profiles, I disabled IPV6 and SWAP, configured my VPN connection as well on network settings and I currently run OpenVPN on my computer (my VPN provider allows for multi-hop cascade through OpenVPN in which I can create a custom VPN cascade up to four servers, each consecutive hop re-encrypts my traffic and assigns me a new IP address) and I've also set disk encryption on installation (have set in all of my computers)
As for software: I use Mozilla Firefox as my web browser (I set it to always be in private mode, unchecked suggestions for browsing history, bookmarks, and open tabs, I've also disabled the Firefox data collection in settings and block dangerous and deceptive content, I use DuckDuckGo as my search engine, I use Firefox Home as my default as my homepage. The rest of my tweaks were done in about:config (using privacytools.io site tweaks + geo.enabled = false, network.cookie.lifetimePolicy = 2 and dom.security.https_only_mode as true which are not listed on the site) and the only addons I use are uBlock Origin on Hard Mode and Decentraleyes), KeePassXC (password manager), VIM (use it as a Text Editor and as an IDE for coding), LibreOffice (for working stuff), GIMP (image editor), VLC, qBitTorrent and Tutanota's Desktop Client and Thunderbird (for e-mails)
I also use KVM/QEMU for virtual machines (usually in case I wanna test some distro or use Tails/Whonix)
For my gaming PC (also a desktop I've built myself) I run Manjaro KDE on it, the only apps I have in the system are Firefox (same settings as above), OBS and KVM/QEMU (which I use a Win10 virtual machine for games, there are tutorials on YouTube on how to do so if you're interested). I have the same firewall settings as above, using AppArmor as well and I've also disabled IPV6 and SWAP, I run OpenVPN on it as well as my VPN DNS settings on network settings. I also use different mouse and keyboard on both my PCs and never mix them together.
My other 2 PCs are both laptops, one is a Acer Aspire Nitro I've bought for work (in case I need to work while in a trip or if I wanna work outside etc), it has the same settings and programs as my main PC but I run Gentoo on it. The other laptop is an old ThinkPad that runs Slackware on it, but I rarely use it and this laptop is most of the times not with me for safety reasons.
For some other devices and stuff: I have an Asus RT-AC86U router with OpenWRT flashed on it that I also run OpenVPN config files (this one coming from another provider, I use two VPN providers, on in my PCs and the other in my router), I have a Ledger Nano S as a hardware wallet for both Bitcoin and Monero (most of my cryptocurrency is there, I use hardware wallet for hodling purposes and as my emergency funding) and I have LOTS of USB flash drivers (all of them for Linux Live ISOs purposes), I also have a Nintendo Switch Lite (only gaming console I have, although have not been playing that much on it recently) that I only connect to the internet in case I need to download some updates or play online and after I'm done I immediately disconnect it from the internet.
Some other privacy habits I have are:
I don't own any smart device like Smart TVs (I've been more than 10 years now without watching TV, doesn't even bother me), Smart Fridges or Dishwashers that connect to your internet, ROOMBAS, Smart Home etc, I keep all my money on crypto (and I have a small amount in gold as well, but I rarely invest on it, all my gold is stored in a manual safe here in my apartment) and I only have like, 10 bucks or so in my back account (as soon as I receive any money I just left the necessary in my account to pay bills and put all the rest on crypto, I try to pay everything on crypto or cash), I RARELY use cloud storage, but if I need to, I go with NextCloud and encrypt all my files with VeraCrypt before uploading it, all my VPN services were paid with Bitcoin (I try to pay everything with crypto as previously said) and I never write directly into any website, I usually write my text on a text editor, copy it and paste it on the website (needless to say that I don't use mainstream social media as well)
So, what do you guys think? anything that you would add your recommend me? (before anyone mentions about self-hosting a DNS server using Pi-hole on a Raspberry Pi, I'm actually thinking on doing it in a near future)
EDIT: forgot to mention that I don't watch YouTube on PC on youtube site, I mostly watch youtube's videos on invidio.us and only use the youtube site for watching live streams honestly. And I also barely go outside with my smartphone (only if I really need to) and I usually keep it away from my computers etc.
EDIT 2: also another thing: I covered all my laptop's webcams with black electrical tape, I have a Logitech C922 Pro webcam for my desktop PCs but rarely use it, and when I need to use it, I unplug it as soon as I'm done with it.
submitted by SlackAcademic to privacytoolsIO [link] [comments]

Weekly Wrap: This Week In Chainlink April 6 - April 12

Announcements and Integrations 🎉
Videos and Podcasts 🎥
Mentions in the Press
“The world increasingly relies on data. Smart contracts will be no different. Chainlink is the only solution to bring data into smart contacts through a decentralized, secure manner. The future is now.” -Kris Humphries, Former NBA Basketball Player
Upcoming Events 📅
Are you interested in hosting your own meetup? Apply to become a Chainlink Community Advocate today: https://events.chain.link/advocate
Community Content & Celebrations 👏
Chainlink is hiring: Check out these open roles 👩‍💼
View all open roles at https://careers.chain.link
Are there other community content and celebrations that we missed? Post them in the comments below! ⤵️
submitted by linkedkeenan to Chainlink [link] [comments]

Improving the standard of living and securing a better future through Digital Gold investment

Improving the standard of living and securing a better future through Digital Gold investment
Living, all by itself, is a struggle when one is out of a vocation however it's more regrettable when one resigns without something considerable to appear for it, work is burdening wellbeing astute and work shrewd and time-wise, so one gets ready for mature age and retirement with different plans and approaches, some look to put resources into treasury securities, common assets, stocks, new businesses, land and so forth yet just a couple really get the opportunity to have advantageous ventures.
Contributing is mind-boggling, one is confronted with the difficulties of data and the alternative of browsing plenty of speculation choices

https://preview.redd.it/h7ltlp821q351.png?width=303&format=png&auto=webp&s=b9f7345b5eed930f1237b3aa444328f012bd60f2
Gold is a benefit known to man more than a great many ages, Gold and copper were the principal metals utilized by people beginning from 5000 BC, The main enlisted gold found in the US was a piece weighing 7.8kg found in Cabarrus County, North Carolina. At the point when progressively gold was found in little spring glade in 1803, the primary US dash for unheard of wealth started. The world's biggest gold hold is held five stories underground in the vault of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, it contains 25% of all the gold saves in the world(540,000 gold bars), the greater part of them have a place with remote gov't. The main ever gold candy machine was introduced in Dubai in 2010. Because of its irregularity and high worth, a large portion of the gold at any point mined is still in flowing gold was removed over the most recent 100 years. Numerous individuals inquire as to why gold is so costly, the explanation is its irregularity: more steel is delivered in one hour than gold through the span of the whole mankind's history. Numerous researchers accept that gold is likewise present in Mars, Mercury and Venus.
Reports state China is expanding its gold imports and Mark Mobius, an energetic broker in gold has prompted that individuals buy gold, he accepts that the cost of gold will continue developing as the measure of paper cash in the worldwide economy increments.

https://preview.redd.it/fh8wmt141q351.png?width=178&format=png&auto=webp&s=04644aa0449938032f281b3020d56695286a591d
Do you realize that under 82% of Americans own any bit of gold?
The exchanging volume of advanced gold is over $100 million
Do you realize you also can put resources into gold?
We should discuss the potential outcomes of putting resources into gold utilizing a blockchain stage, you should have one bit of gold that has a token portrayal,
The explicit explanation on the advanced gold token, what it does and how you can really profit by it.
Presently, in the event that you are following intently, you will find that the crypto showcase hit its top in 2017, in 2017 bitcoin was selling for $20,000 and in 2020, it is coasting around $9,000 and each genuine speculator ought to be seeing this market, at 2017 the complete market capitalization of digital forms of money was nearly $1 Trillion dollars and however it has tumbled to around $300 billion dollars in 2020, this industry despite everything holds a ton of possibilities.
One ought to inquire as to for what reason is there so much venture going into the blockchain space, what is the potential that this thing has, many have named blockchain as web 3.0 or a definitive innovation that will introduce web 3.0, till date, the speculations that have experienced different blockchain new businesses have been over $25 billion dollars with any semblance of EOS, Telegram raising billions of dollars each.
What are the issues associated with putting resources into cryptographic forms of money?
1.Volatility: If you take a gander at the altcoin unsurpassed record, you will see the sickening drop in crypto esteem
What of tasks that have lost over 10000% of their incentive over the course of about two years.
  1. Storage: Knowing which coins to buy and how to store them is a major problem in the digital currency world,crypto-jacking and hacking are at the untouched high as programmers have invaded most internet browsers with coin mining contents and simply a year ago over $1 billion dollars worth of crypto resources were taken from a few trades which thusly constrained them to close their entryways.
To store crypto resources, one is required to safely keep their passwords and their hidden keys as the loss of them mean lost access to their property.

https://preview.redd.it/gjncqcu61q351.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=f54fff5dee4d32375a10b1c087bb5fa013c9a862
Tokenization
The thought is planned for breaking entire units of stocks, foundation and so forth into littler pictures.
Take one unit of gold and make an advanced unit of it with the blockchain, that thought really birthed the Digital gold token project.
The computerized gold commercial centre: encourages a generally simple, powerful and proficient buy/deal framework, clients can just round out a structure that starts a brilliant agreement, which at that point moves the recently printed GOLD tokens.
Concerning engineers, they are additionally spared the issue of the complexities that accompany coordinating a crypto resource for their foundation, the advanced gold tasks assist them with incorporating without any problem.

https://preview.redd.it/tnwhklg81q351.png?width=275&format=png&auto=webp&s=fb5c80a182aa6f6869290a4e28d8d43749b08afc
Highlights of Digital Gold
The advanced gold token flaunts various highlights that make it one of a kind and beneficial for potential speculators to investigate.
It's a token that is minimal effort and doesn't have move costs when one is moving it, it offers potential speculators the chance to broaden their portfolio while additionally keeping their riches in a place of refuge, it likewise gives secure gold possession as the bought gold is made sure about in a sheltered vault, the computerized gold token is exceptionally fluid, which means there is a business opportunity for you at whatever point you expect to sell or purchase the token since the advanced gold token is attached to real gold, the token is as significant as gold itself, so as gold increments in esteem so does the token.
For more info:
Website: https://gold.storage/home
Ann: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5161544
Medium: https://medium.com/@digitalgoldcoin
Whitepaper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
My Bitcointalk profile link: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2150171
Bitcointalk Username: pedpedped101
submitted by elemaneyo to BlockchainStartups [link] [comments]

Public CodeValley/Emergent Consensus questioning and investigation Thread. Ask your hard questions and dispel your doubts here.

What is going on here?
I am asking some hard questions for the CodeValley Company, which recently proposed a new revolutionary software development paradigm called Emergent Coding at the latest big Bitcoin Cash conference in Australia.
I am asking these questions because, as I (and ~150 people who agreed with me) noticed, there are stunning similarities between CodeValley and the companies who have tried and succeeded in crippling Peer-To-Peer Electronic Cash: nChain and Blockstream.
According to me, as it looks now, similarities between these 3 companies (nChain, Blockstream, CodeValley) are the following:
}- Sources of funding are extremely unclear or openly hostile to Bitcoin
}- At first and even second glance, there is no product, no way to make money
}- Whitepaper & Documentation is missing, hollow or total abstract bullshit, company has no logical sense of existence
}- Detailed specifications or proofs of operation are not available
}- Main products are closed-source patented blobs (BSV, Liquid, Emergent Coding)
}- They have huge influences in the industry or try to establish themselves in such position to have the infuences
I am here (and you are here, I assume) because we want to find out the truth, whatever the truth is. The point of this topic is to ask the hardest possible questions in order to estimate the probability of CodeValley company being legit.
But this is also a chance for CodeValley to clear their name by providing sufficient information that proves that (after 4 years of having working company and 10+ years of having patents [Archived]) they actually have a working product and are a legit company, and not an infiltrator designed and paid by banks/TPTB in order to cripple and destroy Bitcoin Cash. Also if they truly are what they claim and they truly have such a revolutionary technology, this is a great opportunity for promotion. To show the world that the tech actually works.
I will ask my questions and you can ask your questions as well. Don't make them easy. Don't have mercy (but these things work better when you are polite).
Let's begin the trial by fire!
Calling nlovisa
My Questions/Tasks for CodeValley:
[Of course you actually don't have to answer any of them or you can give us bullshit answers again, but in such case the community may conclude that you actually are next nChain/Blockstream and an enemy infiltrator, reject you and shoot down all your efforts. So the choice is yours]
@@@@ 1. Please upload your actual businessplan which you presented to the people in power who gave you funding(VCs? Government?) to create $50 Million BCH tech park. A businessplan which is supposed to explain spending of $50 million AUD should have at least 7 pages (but more probably 20+). Some names and unimportant details (but NOT money/financial numbers) can be redacted.
-- You have 6 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 2. Please list your current VCs and >%5 shareholders, with CEO names and HQ locations of each of them.
-- You have 4 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 3. Few days ago you promised to upload freely-accessible documentation to https://codevalley.com/docs subpage which would describe emergent coding in greater details.
@ - What happened to that promise?
@@@@ 4. After I accused that your company is bullshit and your product is hollow, you immediately started to praise me and offered me a trip to Australia [Archived].
@ - So, do you always praise and offer a paid trip across the world to Australia to all people on the Internet who heavily criticize you? Is this a common practice in your company?
@@@@ 5. A travel from Poland to Australia and back would cost something under $2000 AUD, counting buses, with hotels that would make something close to $2500 AUD even for few days. Based on this, I estimate your "invite random people from the internet to Australia in order to show them the product" budget has to consist of at least $50.000 AUD yearly (but $100.000 - $200.000 is more probable of course).
@ A) In your financial books, what exactly is called the Excel position of your budget expenses under which would your secretary put my trip's expenses?
@ B) How do you maintain such a large budget for such frivolous spending and how do you explain it to your shareholders/VCs?
@@@@ 6. Few days ago you answered somebody a question: "The trust model is also different. The bulk of the testing happens before the project is designed not after. Emergent Coding produces a binary with very high integrity and arguably far more testing is done in emergent coding than in incumbent methods you are used to.".
@ A) Who EXACTLY does the testing? People? Software? AI? Non-bullshit answer, please.
@ B) Why exactly is there "more testing" in Emergent Coding than in normal software creation paradigm? Why is emergent coding different? Do the developers who work in this paradigm are somehow special? Are the programming languages magical?
@ C) What are the specific software tools used for this "testing"? "Agents" is a non-answer, so don't even try.
@@@@ 7. Please provide a simple demo binary of a simple program created completely using your "Emergent Coding" and also provide all the binary sub-component files that make up the final binary.
Requirements: There has to be a minimum of 3 sub - binaries making up the final big binary for this to be valid. 2 or less does not count. None of the binaries can be obfuscated, they have to be clean X86/X86_64 machine code binaries.
Notes: It should be incredibily simple, quick and easy task for you, since designing such a complex and apparently breakthough system must have required thousands, tens of thousands if not hundereds of thousands tests. All of these tests produced working binaries - after all you wouldn't claim you have a working marvellous revolutionary product without extensive testing, right?
-- You have 18 hours for this task --
Of course, If you are saying the truth and have truly developed this revolutionary "emergent coding" binary-on-the-fly-merging technology, this should normally take you under 18 minutes to just find the test samples and upload them.
@@@@ 8. Please construct a simple (binary or source) single-use-compiler demo that will combine 3 or more sub-binaries into final working product. Please upload the sub-binaries and the "single-use compiler" to publicly available site so people in our community can verify that your product is actually working.
The single-use-compiler binary can be obfuscated with proper tool in order to hide your precious intellectual property. The 3 sample sub-binaries cannot be obfuscated. They have to be pure, clean, binary X86/X86_64 machine code. Everything has to be working and verifable of course.
-- You have 72 hours to complete this task --
I understand all your technologies are patented with patents that basically predate Bitcoin and you are giving us obfuscated binaries, so you don't have to worry about anybody stealing your company's intellectual property, right?
@@@@ 9. You mentioned the only application I need to create programs using Emergent Coding is the pilot app.
@ - What programming language(s) is the pilot app written in?
@@@@ 10. When you developed the Emerging Coding, before it started existing, you couldn't have used emergent coding to create the first (test & development) applications because it is a chicken and egg problem.
@ - What programming language did you use to create first client/serveapi/daemon/tool used to merge multiple binaries into one in Emergent Coding?
@@@@ 11. Please list all of your current programmers and programming language each of them is using next to their name. Also provide LinkedIn profiles if applicable.
-- You have 18 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 12. Please also list all Development Environments (IDEs) used by your current programmers next to their name.
-- You have 18 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 13. Please list all compilers used by your current programmers next to their name.
-- You have 18 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 14. So if I understand correctly CodeValley will be the company who runs $50 million BCH tech park and the tech will house multiple Bitcoin Cash-related startup and companies. Let's say I have a BCH startup and I would like to rent a loft/spot in your "tech park".
A) Please provide a PDF of sample basic contract you have (hopefully) prepared for such startups.
-- You have 4 hours to complete this task --
B) How much does the rent cost per a room (or m2/sqft) for a month and for a year?
@@@@ 15. Please submit the list of compilers that produce X86/X86_64/ARM binaries compatibile with Emergent Coding "mash-it-together" "binary compiler".
-- You have 4 hours to complete this task --
@@@@ 16. Is it possible for Emergent Coding to merge multiple non-binary applications (like Python or PHP programs) together? Or is it just binaries?
Who are you?
I am a freedom thinker and individual independent from all infuences who just does what he finds appropriate at the moment. Disclaimer to preempt questions:
}- I do not work for anybody
}- I do not have any hidden agenda
}- I am only doing what I think is right
}- I am a born revolutionist, this is why I am in Bitcoin
Why are you doing this?
}- Because I believe in truth above all. Truth will save us.
}- Because I believe in Satoshi's peer-to-peer cash for the world vision and I will not stray from this path.
}- Because most people are apparently missing psychological immune system which is why attempts like Blockstream, nChain appear and are repetedly [at least partially] successful. I have an anti-bullshit immune system that works great against this type of attacks. I was actually one of the first to be banned in /Bitcoin sub for pointing out their lies with manipulations and to spot Craig Wright's attempt to infiltrate and bend /btc sub to his will..
}- Because I was fooled twice by entities similar to CodeValley before (namingly nChain and Blockstream) and I will not be fooled again. Bitcoin Cash will not be co-opted easily as long as I am here.
}- Because if Bitcoin Cash community is an organism, then I became a B lymphocyte cell. I produce antibodies. I show you how to defend yourself from bullshit, lies and manipulation. This is my basic function.
}- Because I am here to kill the bank
submitted by ShadowOfHarbringer to btc [link] [comments]

[Discussion] TestFlight Public Beta Links V2

EDIT: I'm really baffled as to why there are people downvoting this. You're only preventing other people on the sub-reddit from seeing this by doing so. Think about other people who have been looking for some of these links for months before you downvote this post for zero reason.

New Thread for y'all!

Here are the TestFlight links I have come across so far. I will update this continually as I find more and as you guys post more. Happy testing!

Tip: Use Ctrl+F to find links to your favorite applications quicker

If you like what you see, feel free to Venmo me! I just graduated college and will have to start paying back loans soon, so anything is extremely appreciated. Feel free to send me your username too, if you want a shoutout on this post!

Venmo: MichaelBertolino

Old Post: https://www.reddit.com/iOSBeta/comments/9so4u8/discussion_testflight_public_beta_links/

Update #1: Added column for the people who wanted to know when new links were added. You're welcome.
Update #1.5: I will remove the links after every tenth link that is added, so make sure to check the list daily!

Update #2: Since this list is becoming a lot bigger, I'm adding a column for apps that I endorse (whether I like them or not) or have on my phone, so that people can find better quality apps quicker.

Up to date as of 10/24/19 @ 10:05 AM EST
Date Added OP approved // On My Device Application Link Sauce // Instructions
Yes // Yes 1.1.1.1: Faster Internet https://testflight.apple.com/join/Sl7m9yyz Courtesy of u/rgllm
1Blocker X https://testflight.apple.com/join/KjmVWFnT Courtesy of u/loudmoutholeary
Yes // No 1Password https://testflight.apple.com/join/flDiG5AU Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
2Do - Todo List, Tasks & Notes https://testflight.apple.com/join/McBV96Wi Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No 9GAG: Best LOL Pics & GIFs https://testflight.apple.com/join/S2q4mD2b Courtesy of u/jengyong
AdGuard https://surveys.adguard.com/beta_testing_program/form.html Courtesy of u/Birdman-82 // Form
all 4 hue (for Philips Hue) https://testflight.apple.com/join/4Jc5hX2s Courtesy of u/bkmgtpe
Area51: A Client for Reddit https://testflight.apple.com/join/V6vpApGX Courtesy of u/Nicolaspatate
Airchat for AirPods https://testflight.apple.com/join/wL0ZRXln Courtesy of u/Vegetapple
Yes // No Airmail https://testflight.apple.com/join/1AcpfFq3 Courtesy of u/TSUTiger
AmazFaces https://testflight.apple.com/join/4hBEKHHg Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Andrana Project https://testflight.apple.com/join/RorSFmpx Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No AnyList https://testflight.apple.com/join/xwvLPc6o Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Armajet https://armajet.com/ Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis // Form. Scroll down to bottom
Artstudio Pro: Draw Paint Edit https://testflight.apple.com/join/Npva2kOl Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Banana Racer https://testflight.apple.com/join/F7OpC9rE Courtesy of u/potencia2001
Yes // No BBC Sport https://testflight.apple.com/join/LWzWwU8q Courtesy of u/Vegetapple
Beatwave https://testflight.apple.com/join/2ZowJ3D3 Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No BETA PUBG MOBILE https://testflight.apple.com/join/N2px9MKy Courtesy of u/suuuuuuuuja
9/18/19 Binfinder: Find litter bins https://testflight.apple.com/join/B4geEYHD Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Yes // No BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSfMwOqEZn6mFtuz9FhzreOdysmTbSaRnOO3LCIHY1Uwt2f31A/viewform Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis // Form
Yes // No Buffer: Social Media Manager https://testflight.apple.com/join/DOpMcusn Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Bullet Force https://bulletforce.herokuapp.com/ Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis // Form
CARROT Fit https://testflight.apple.com/join/rhsofJcx Courtesy of u/loudmoutholeary
9/29/19 Castro Podcast Player https://testflight.apple.com/join/rcoPrQZ3 Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Cs Music Player https://testflight.apple.com/join/dU2r1pkq Courtesy of u/Birdman-82
ChastiKey https://testflight.apple.com/join/0pHRZcVD Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
CHUNE https://testflight.apple.com/join/7gH8i3pN Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Cloud Baby Monitor https://testflight.apple.com/join/LiFkmauz Courtesy of u/alexrianne
CoinView: Bitcoin Altcoin App https://testflight.apple.com/join/zjjpM7eC Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Comet https://testflight.apple.com/join/AShWXMYH Courtesy of u/Cesuva
Controller for HomeKit https://testflight.apple.com/join/W8RcBWhh Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Custom Contacts 2 https://testflight.apple.com/join/uOLgKHRN Courtesy of u/RisksvsBenefits
9/29/19 Dark Odds https://testflight.apple.com/join/oyTaqKjv Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Darkroom – Photo Editor https://testflight.apple.com/join/mzR3XvHe Courtesy of u/Vegetapple
Yes // No Day One Journal https://testflight.apple.com/join/NXLBigzY Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Debit & Credit https://testflight.apple.com/join/FvufwHrV Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No Deezer https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScFW5Cc0tdycEegIASXWqEn-512i_qTVPlvXoaearB12r35Fw/viewform?c=0&w=1 Courtesy of u/K2rtman
detektor.fm https://testflight.apple.com/join/XocX8UGc Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
DEV Community https://testflight.apple.com/join/7Wq8VRLQ Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // Yes Discord https://testflight.apple.com/join/gdE4pRzI Courtesy of u/TSUTiger
Dog Scanner https://testflight.apple.com/join/OOrSaq4J Courtesy of u/arcangel_06
Yes // Yes Dropbox https://testflight.apple.com/join/LBZaRq4I Courtesy of u/Nicolaspatate
9/18/19 Yes // Yes Email - Canary Mail https://testflight.apple.com/join/oH6AKZC0 Courtesy of u/kamsa6-fojbiz-nesXem
Emma - Money Management https://testflight.apple.com/join/KSO9dtAn Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
9/18/19 Eternal Love M https://testflight.apple.com/join/4O9GPjMk Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Yes // No Facebook Light https://testflight.apple.com/join/UqEC1ibq Courtesy of u/Birdman-82
Yes // Yes Facebook Messenger https://testflight.apple.com/join/njVWbUm0 Courtest of u/dmbaio
FanFiction.Net https://testflight.apple.com/join/NLrhkf2U Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No Feedly https://testflight.apple.com/join/DcxRQdP9 Courtesy of u/TSUTiger
Yes // No Fenix For Twitter https://testflight.apple.com/join/poQA1Iml Courtesy of u/TSUTiger
FIFA: Gameplay First Look https://testflight.apple.com/join/B0QRLciS Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
9/18/19 Fight Back to the 80's Match 3 https://testflight.apple.com/join/xt9cIUk1 Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Yes // No Firefox https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/ios/testflight/ Courtesy of u/syralspiral // Requires an E-Mail Address
FotMob Live Soccer Scores https://testflight.apple.com/join/zEAwGlrV Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Freebox https://testflight.apple.com/join/q9vICEOv Courtesy of u/Vegetapple
GAMEE - Play with your friends https://testflight.apple.com/join/WdjtLFsf Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Garadget 2 https://testflight.apple.com/join/fdJQnYQ2 Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
GawkBox https://testflight.apple.com/join/miOgmpZa Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
GROM - Get Rid of Minions https://testflight.apple.com/join/5k0dF9zs Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No GroupMe https://testflight.apple.com/join/6CcTotfX/ Courtesy of Yours Truly
Yes // Yes Google Apps (Every. Single. One.) (Best find ever) https://previewapps.withgoogle.com/ Courtest of u/ryangoldstein // Click on "Get Access" at the top right of the screen
Yes // Yes Google Chrome Beta https://www.google.com/chrome/beta/ Courtesy of Yours Truly // Click on "Download Chrome Beta" on an iOS device
Guide Meditation https://testflight.apple.com/join/Apcb3YLW Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No Happy Mail for Gmail https://testflight.apple.com/join/Pg9PbgEw Courtesy of u/arcangel_06
Hexer – Hex File Viewer https://testflight.apple.com/join/YqMTA9lr Courtesy of u/Kamik423
Highlights - Export PDF Notes https://testflight.apple.com/join/Abrd4mE4 Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
9/18/19 Yes // No Hire by Google https://testflight.apple.com/join/pv5dbYgF Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Home Assistant Companion https://testflight.apple.com/join/XCUga7ko Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
iCertifi https://testflight.apple.com/join/hnyqQHH0 Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Idle Space: Cargo Empire https://testflight.apple.com/join/SGPJ8FJK Courtesy of u/Ultimastar
Yes // Yes IFTTT https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdXzjY_hv8F8UMa58IIEmqAyZ_ixAbxxltiuwQAWa_9uyYEMQ/viewform?c=0&w=1 Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis // Form
Yes // No Imgur - Meme & GIF Maker https://testflight.apple.com/join/Qd42y5Pw Courtesy of u/Vegetapple
infltr - Infinite Filters https://testflight.apple.com/join/In6e3GcJ Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
iSH Shell https://testflight.apple.com/join/97i7KM8O Courtesy of u/gnomeuser
Yes // No Jira Cloud by Atlassian https://testflight.apple.com/join/2lm7vHBS Courtesy of u/thekirbylover
KARMA: Social Network For Good https://testflight.apple.com/join/lpnVgcmV Courtesy of u/Vegetapple
Yes // No Kaspersky Security Cloud https://testflight.apple.com/join/yst7K78b Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No LastPass Password Manager https://testflight.apple.com/join/fy7LvHVA Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
LFIX https://testflight.apple.com/join/TYoQEz4T Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Map Pilot for DJI https://testflight.apple.com/join/FWOdp61T Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
10/3/19 Maze Machine https://testflight.apple.com/join/37BftFj2 Courtesy of u/RobinBaerheim
Yes // No Mega https://testflight.apple.com/join/4x1P5Tnx Courtesy of u/Nicolaspatate
9/19/19 Memento: Modern Reminders https://testflight.apple.com/join/aRvubPov Courtesy of u/kamsa6-fojbiz-nesXem
Yes // No Microsoft Cortana https://testflight.apple.com/join/4IHpEYnz Courtesy of Daniel Rubino from Windows Central
Yes // Yes Microsoft Edge https://testflight.apple.com/join/VtDI7uRL or See Right Column Courtesy of u/DarkUv77 & Yours Truly // Go into the settings within the Microsoft Edge browser and look at the middle option for "Join Microsoft Edge Beta" and badda-boom-badda-bing
Yes // No Microsoft Excel https://aka.ms/iOSInsiderExcel Courtesy of Yours Truly
Yes // Yes Microsoft OneDrive https://testflight.apple.com/join/LtgPLzrQ Courtesy of u/TSUTiger
Yes // No Microsoft OneNote https://aka.ms/iOSInsiderOneNote Courtesy of Yours Truly
Yes // No Microsoft Outlook https://aka.ms/iOSInsiderOutlook Courtesy of Yours Truly
Yes // No Microsoft PowerPoint https://aka.ms/iOSInsiderPowerPoint Courtesy of Yours Truly
Yes // No Microsoft Remote Desktop Beta https://testflight.apple.com/join/vkLIflUJ Courtesy of u/Rukario
Yes // Yes Microsoft To-Do https://testflight.apple.com/join/JSq3UkAz Courtesy of u/DiegoNavarro
Yes // No Microsoft Word https://aka.ms/iOSInsiderWord Courtesy of Yours Truly
Mojo - Create Video Stories https://testflight.apple.com/join/AJlrDMao Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Momento - GIF Maker & Creator https://testflight.apple.com/join/HzErGQWT Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Moonscape - Crypto Tracker https://testflight.apple.com/join/eIKd6q8T Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Musixmatch Lyrics Finder https://testflight.apple.com/join/7yLzN5td Courtesy of u/Vegetapple
MyPal https://testflight.apple.com/join/Jj3B6vQ8 Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Netwa - spy for Whatsapp https://testflight.apple.com/join/7GMwTEZw Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Yes // No The New York Times https://testflight.apple.com/join/gfiSREAr Courtesy of u/sushiinyourface
Nextcloud https://testflight.apple.com/join/GjNbfo2a Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
NoiseHub https://testflight.apple.com/join/ulV8RPis Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
10/3/19 Yes // No Notability https://support.gingerlabs.com/hc/en-us/articles/216037238-Apply-to-Beta-Test-Notability- Courtesy of u/jraspiprojects // Form
NotePlan - Markdown Calendar https://testflight.apple.com/join/mrSbc937 Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
NSScreencast https://testflight.apple.com/join/zNLNVYtN Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
Omlet Arcade https://testflight.apple.com/join/xqSLy94a Courtesy of u/BillyCurtis
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submitted by MikeBert97 to iOSBeta [link] [comments]

ILPT: How to make hundreds with little to no effort (1-2hr max) per day for 2 to 3 weeks selling fake event tickets! 100% works in UK!

Sell fake event tickets. Won’t work for big festivals that require a real ticket (Glastonbury, Reading, etc.) and imagine things like coachela in the US won’t work either.
Will ONLY work for events using E-Tickets (small - medium sized events)
1a. Buy a LEGIT ticket from the website 1b. Sell LEGIT ticket for a bit of a loss immediately, or wait until tickets are sold out for profit
  1. With a PDF editor such as adobe, change all details on the e-ticket (name, address, last 4 digits of card paid with, time and date ticket was purchased, BARCODE AND QR CODE - you can find barcode and QR code makers on google, just make it look similar in size
!!! MAKE SURE YOU ESPECIALLY CHANGE BARCODE AND QR CODE AS THIS CAN EASILY LINK IT BACK TO YOU. NAME, ADDRESS AND CARD DETAILS ALSO EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO CHANGE !!!
  1. Now go on to Facebook and go into various selling groups, marketplace etc and search for various things such as ‘ID’ ‘lost ID’ ‘driving licence’ etc. Do this until you find a picture of an ID. Screen shot that.
4a. Search ‘u account’ (for UK users [might work for other countries still]) or any website that lets you get a virtual bank account and make an account with REAL details of someone else’s you found from the ID on Facebook. You won’t receive the card but you’ll have bank account info (account number and sort code). 4b. Now make a NEW Paypal account, making sure you use the details from the found ID (name, address, D.o.B, etc.). Add the account number and sort code to link this to a bank. Also, get a pay as you go sim and a shitty phone to verify your number on Paypal (helps get money out quicker).
!!! it is VITAL you use NAME AND ADDRESS AND DATE OF BIRTH on the ID so when Paypal ask for an ID you can send that same picture!!!
  1. Once E-ticket is edited, make a Facebook account with the NEW name on the ticket. Find a real fb account and use their pictures and lock the FB account down so people can’t see friends etc. Make sure to add a real school, job etc on profile and share loads of stuff (videos etc) to fill your profile.
  2. Once FB profile is made, join groups relating to the targeted event. Wait until event is close or tickets sold out and then start selling the tickets...post you have tickets until the first person buys it, then to avoid suspicion, don’t post again, but just private message anyone looking for a ticket and sell it to them
  3. Make sure when receiving money, get them to use friends and family (if they ask why, say you don’t want fees and to have to wait for the money) and if they don’t want to do it, don’t seem desperate, just say ‘ok cool no worries, hope you find a ticket’ ... some will just buy it, or come back after couple days
  4. With your PayPal funds... you’re gonna wanna buy virtual items such as PSN Cards, XBOX cards, steam keys etc. Then sell them on eBay or wherever on your real account and get the funds OR buy bitcoin and cashout to one of the machines in some shopping areas to receive cash.
PRO TIP - use same edited e-ticket for another event, just change event name to save time!
submitted by jackmurphy101 to IllegalLifeProTips [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

https://preview.redd.it/s2gmpmeze3151.png?width=256&format=png&auto=webp&s=9759910dd3c4a15b83f55b827d1899fb2fdd3de1

1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
https://preview.redd.it/t1j6anf8f3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=33bd141d8f2136a6f32739c8cdc7aae2e04cbc47

Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

https://preview.redd.it/m6texxicf3151.png?width=1591&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4253304912ed8370948b9c524e08fef28f1c78d

Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
https://preview.redd.it/depya70mf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6499aa2131fbf347f8ffd812930b2f7d66be48e
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
https://preview.redd.it/cy56icarf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=b239a63c6a87ec6cc1b18ce2cbd0355f8831c3a8
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/hjeqe4l7g3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=8014fb08fe62ac4d91645499bc0c7e1c04c5d7c4
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

No, you aren't supposed to have to choose between gold and cash

I saw this comment in a thread on this sub and it kind of broke my heart how much the message has been lost:
I think BTC is aiming for a different audience these days, it’s looking to be digital gold, not digital cash
folks.
the original plan is that it's both
What's a PDF? It's like a piece of paper, only digital, so it's teleportable. What's an MP3? It's like a 45 single, only digital so it's teleportable.
Digital gold is like physical gold because it is durable and scarce, but it's digital, so it's teleportable practically anywhere practically instantly practically for free, so you can use it like cash.
Imagine if gold had always been weightless, teleportable and trivially divisible. Would anyone have bothered to come up with paper money in the first place? Would we need visa cards? Would we need central banks? No! We wouldn't need any of that. Any time we needed to pay, we'd just teleport a little gold. THAT'S BITCOIN (now BCH).
BTC is trying to dismantle the teleportation feature, to make it slow and expensive, more like physical gold. Thought leaders say that making an onchain transaction will one day be as specialized as chartering an oil tanker. in their vision, gold will rarely ever teleport. instead it will remain fixed in place, and payments will be made by issuing cryptographic IOUs. Sound familiar? That's because it's patterned on how banking originally began. It's as revolutionary as inventing a fax machine in an email world.
Meanwhile they're trying to convince people that they have to choose between gold or cash.
That's a lie, a false antithesis. People don't understand, assume that gold is a scarce asset and cash is just cheap paper.
BCH is scarce and durable like gold, but it retains its teleportation feature, so you can also use it for cash. By having the durability and value of gold along with the utility of cash, Bitcoin (BCH) eliminated the need for any sort of banker or middleman. just like if gold had always been trivially divisible and teleportable.
TLDR The original Bitcoin vision is much more powerful and subversive than "gold or cash." It's both gold and cash.
submitted by jessquit to btc [link] [comments]

Quant Network: Token valuation dynamics and fundamentals

Quant Network: Token valuation dynamics and fundamentals
This post intends to illustrate the dynamics and fundamentals related to the mechanics and use of the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT), in order to provide the community with greater clarity around what holding the token actually means.
This is a follow-up on two articles David W previously wrote about Quant Network’s prospects and potential, which you can find here:
For holders not intending to use Overledger for business reasons, the primary goal of holding the QNT token is to benefit from price appreciation. Some are happy to believe that speculation will take the QNT price to much higher levels if and when large-scale adoption/implementation news comes out, whilst others may actually prefer to assess the token’s utility and analyse how it would react to various scenarios to justify a price increase based on fundamentals. The latter is precisely what I aim to look into in this article.
On that note, I have noticed that many wish to see institutional investors getting involved in the crypto space for their purchase power, but the one thing they would bring and that is most needed in my opinion is fundamental analysis and valuation expectations based on facts. Indeed, equity investors can probably access 20 or 30 reports that are 15 pages long and updated on a quarterly basis about any blue chip stock they are invested in, but how many of such (professional) analyst reports can you consult for your favorite crypto coins? Let me have a guess: none. This is unfortunate, and it is a further reason to look into the situation in more details.
To be clear, this article is not about providing figures on the expected valuation of the token, but rather about providing the community with a deeper analysis to better understand its meaning and valuation context. This includes going through the (vast) differences between a Utility Token and a Company Share since I understand it is still blurry in some people’s mind. I will incorporate my thoughts and perspective on these matters, which should not be regarded as a single source of truth but rather as an attempt to “dig deeper”.
In order to share these thoughts with you in the most pertinent manner, I have actually entirely modelled the Quant Treasury function and analysed how the QNT token would react to various scenarios based on a number of different factors. That does not mean there is any universal truth to be told, but it did help in clarifying how things work (with my understanding of the current ruleset at least, which may also evolve over time). This is an important safety net: if the intensity of speculation in crypto markets was to go lower from here, what would happen to the token price? How would Quant Treasury help support it? If the market can feel comfortable with such situation and the underlying demand for the token, then it can feel comfortable to take it higher based on future growth expectations — and that’s how it should be.
Finally, to help shed light on different areas, I must confess that I will have to go through some technicalities on how this all works and what a Utility Token actually is. That is the price to pay to gain that further, necessary knowledge and be in a position to assess the situation more thoroughly — but I will make it as readable as I possibly can, so… if are you ready, let’s start!

A Utility Token vs. a Company Share: what is the difference?

It is probably fair to say that many people involved in the crypto space are unfamiliar with certain key financial terms or concepts, simply because finance is not necessarily everyone’s background (and that is absolutely fine!). In addition, Digital Assets bring some very novel concepts, which means that everyone has to adapt in any case.
Therefore, I suggest we start with a comparison of the characteristics underpinning the QNT Utility Token and a Quant Network Company Share (as you may know, the Company Shares are currently privately held by the Quant Network founders). I believe it is important to look at this comparison for two reasons:
  1. Most people are familiar with regular Company Shares because they have been traded for decades, and it is often asked how Utility Tokens compare.
  2. Quant Network have announced a plan to raise capital to grow their business further (in the September 2019 Forbes article which you can find here). Therefore, regardless of whether the Share Offering is made public or private, I presume the community will want to better understand how things compare and the different dynamics behind each instrument.
So where does the QNT Utility Token sit in Quant Network company and how does it compare to a Quant Network Company Share? This is how it looks:
https://preview.redd.it/zgidz8ed74y31.png?width=1698&format=png&auto=webp&s=54acd2def0713b67ac7c41dae6c9ab225e5639fa
What is on the right hand side of a balance sheet is the money a company has, and what is on the left hand side is how it uses it. Broadly speaking, the money the company has may come from the owners (Equity) or from the creditors (Debt). If I were to apply these concepts to an individual (you!), “Equity” is your net worth, “Debt” is your mortgage and other debt, and “Assets” is your house, car, savings, investments, crypto, etc.
As you can see, a Company Share and a Utility Token are found in different parts of the balance sheet — and that, in itself, is a major difference! They indeed serve two very different purposes:
  • Company Shares: they represent a share of a company’s ownership, meaning that you actually own [X]% of the company ([X]% = Number of shares you possess / Total number of shares) and hence [X]% of the company’s assets on the left hand side of the balance sheet.
  • Utility Tokens: they are keys to access a given platform (in our case, Quant Network’s Operating System: Overledger) and they can serve multiple purposes as defined by their Utility Document (in QNT’s case, the latest V0.3 version can be found here).
As a consequence, as a Company Shareholder, you are entitled to receive part or all of the profits generated by the company (as the case may arise) and you can also take part in the management decisions (indeed, with 0.00000001% of Apple shares, you have the corresponding right to vote to kick the CEO out if you want to!).
On the other hand, as a Utility Token holder, you have no such rights related to the company’s profits or management, BUT any usage of the platform has to go through the token you hold — and that has novel, interesting facets.

A Utility Token vs. a Company Share: what happens in practice?

Before we dig further, let’s now remind ourselves of the economic utilities of the QNT token (i.e. in addition to signing and encrypting transactions):
  1. Licences: a licence is mandatory for anyone who wishes to develop on the Overledger platform. Enterprises and Developers pay Quant Network in fiat money and Quant Treasury subsequently sets aside QNT tokens for the same amount (a diagram on how market purchases are performed can be found on the Overledger Treasury page here). The tokens are locked for 12 months, and the current understanding is that the amount of tokens locked is readjusted at each renewal date to the prevailing market price of QNT at the time (this information is not part of the Utility Token document as of now, but it was given in a previous Telegram AMA so I will assume it is correct pending further developments).
  2. Usage: this relates to the amount of Overledger read and write activity performed by clients on an ongoing basis, and also to the transfer of Digital Assets from one chain to another, and it follows a similar principle: fiat money is received by Quant Network, and subsequently converted in QNT tokens (these tokens are not locked, however).
  3. Gateways: information about Gateways has been released through the Overledger Network initiative (see dedicated website here), and we now know that the annual cost for running a Gateway will be 500 QNT whilst Gateway holders will receive a percentage of transaction fees going through their setup.
  4. Minimum holding amounts: the team has stated that there will be a minimum QNT holding amount put in place for every participant of the Overledger ecosystem, although the details have not been released yet.
That being said, it now becomes interesting to illustrate with indicative figures what actually happens as Licences, Usage and Gateways are paid for and Quant Network company operates. The following diagram may help in this respect:
Arbitrary figures from myself (i.e. no currency, no unit), based on an indicative 20% Net Income Ratio and a 40% Dividend yield
We have now two different perspectives:
  • On the right hand side, you see the simplified Profit & Loss account (“P&L”) which incorporates Total Revenues, from which costs and taxes are deducted, to give a Net Income for the company. A share of this Net Income may be distributed to Shareholders in the form of a Dividend, whilst the remainder is accounted as retained profits and goes back to the balance sheet as Equity to fund further growth for instance. Importantly, the Dividend (if any) is usually a portion of the Net Income so, using an indicative 40% Dividend yield policy, shareholders receive here for a given year 80 out of total company revenues of 1,000.
  • On the left hand side, you see the QNT requirements arising from the Overledger-related business activity which equal 700 here. Note that this is only a portion of the Total Revenues (1,000) you can see on the right hand side, as the team generates income from other sources as well (e.g. consultancy fees) — but I assume Overledger will represent the bulk of it since it is Quant Network’s flagship product and focus. In this case, the equivalent fiat amount of QNT tokens represents 700 (i.e. 100% of Overledger-related revenues) out of the company’s Total Revenues of 1,000. It is to be noted that excess reserves of QNT may be sold and generate additional revenues for the company, which would be outside of the Overledger Revenues mentioned above (i.e. they would fall in the “Other Revenues” category).
A way to summarise the situation from a very high level is: as a Company Shareholder you take a view on the company’s total profits whereas as a Utility Token holder you take a view on the company’s revenues (albeit Overledger-related).
It is however too early to reach any conclusion, so we now need to dig one level deeper again.

More considerations around Company Shares

As we discussed, with a Company Share, you possess a fraction of the company’s ownership and hence you have access to profits (and losses!). So how do typical Net Income results look in the technology industry? What sort of Dividend is usually paid? What sort of market valuations are subsequently achieved?
Let’s find out:
https://preview.redd.it/eua9sqlt74y31.png?width=2904&format=png&auto=webp&s=3500669942abf62a0ea1c983ab3cea40552c40d1
As you can see, the typical Net Income Ratio varies between around 10% and 20% in the technology/software industry (using the above illustrated peer group). The ratio illustrates the proportion of Net Income extracted from Revenues.
In addition, money is returned to Company Shareholders in the form of a Dividend (i.e. a portion of the Net Income) and in the form of Share repurchases (whereby the company uses its excess cash position to buy back shares from Shareholders and hence diminish the number of Shares available). A company may however prefer to not redistribute any of the profits, and retain them instead to fund further business growth — Alphabet (Google) is a good example in this respect.
Interestingly, as you can see on the far right of the table, the market capitalisations of these companies reflect high multiples of their Net Income as investors expect the companies to prosper in the future and generate larger profits. If you wished to explore these ideas further, I recommend also looking into the Return on Equity ratio which takes into account the amount of resources (i.e. Capital/Equity) put to work to generate the companies’ profits.
It is also to be noted that the number of Company Shares outstanding may vary over time. Indeed, aside from Share repurchases that diminish the number of Shares available to the market, additional Shares may be issued to raise additional funds from the market hence diluting the ownership of existing Shareholders.
Finally, (regular) Company Shares are structured in the same way across companies and industries, which brings a key benefit of having them easily comparable/benchmarkable against one another for investors. That is not the case for Utility Tokens, but they come with the benefit of having a lot more flexible use cases.

More considerations around the QNT token

As discussed, the Utility Token model is quite novel and each token has unique functions designed for the system it is associated with. That does not make value assessment easy, since all Utility Tokens are different, and this is a further reason to have a detailed look into the QNT case.
https://preview.redd.it/b0xe0ogw74y31.png?width=1512&format=png&auto=webp&s=cece522cd7919125e199b012af41850df6d9e9fd
As a start, all assets that are used in a speculative way embed two components into their price:
A) one that represents what the asset is worth today, and
B) one that represents what it may be worth in the future.
Depending on whether the future looks bright or not, a price premium or a price discount may be attached to the asset price.
This is similar to what we just saw with Company Shares valuation multiples, and it is valid across markets. For instance, Microsoft generates around USD 21bn in annual Net Income these days, but the cost of acquiring it entirely is USD 1,094bn (!). This speculative effect is particularly visible in the crypto sector since valuation levels are usually high whilst usage/adoption levels are usually low for now.
So what about QNT? As mentioned, the QNT Utility model has novel, interesting facets. Since QNT is required to access and use the Overledger system, it is important to appreciate that Quant Network company has three means of action regarding the QNT token:
  1. MANAGING their QNT reserves on an ongoing basis (i.e. buying or selling tokens is not always automatic, they can allocate tokens from their own reserves depending on their liquidity position at any given time),
  2. BUYING/RECEIVING QNT from the market/clients on the back of business activity, and
  3. SELLING QNT when they deem their reserves sufficient and/or wish to sell tokens to cover for operational costs.
Broadly speaking, the above actions will vary depending on business performance, the QNT token price and the Quant Network company’s liquidity position.
We also have to appreciate how the QNT distribution will always look like, it can be broken down as follows:
https://preview.redd.it/f20h7hvz74y31.png?width=1106&format=png&auto=webp&s=f2f5b63272f5ed6e3f977ce08d7bae043851edd1
A) QNT tokens held by the QNT Community
B) QNT tokens held by Quant Network that are locked (i.e. those related to Licences)
C) QNT tokens held by Quant Network that are unlocked (i.e. those related to other usage, such as consumption fees and Gateways)
D) the minimum QNT amount held by all users of the platform (more information on this front soon)
So now that the situation is set, how would we assess Quant Network’s business activity effect on the QNT token?
STEP 1: We would need to define the range of minimum/maximum amounts of QNT which Quant Network would want to keep as liquid reserves (i.e. unlocked) on an ongoing basis. This affects key variables such as the proportion of market purchases vs. the use of their own reserves, and the amount of QNT sold back to the market. Also, interestingly, if Quant Network never wanted to keep less than, for instance, 1 million QNT tokens as liquid reserves, these 1 million tokens would have a similar effect on the market as the locked tokens because they would never be sold.
STEP 2: We would need to define the amount of revenues that are related to QNT. As we know, Overledger Licences, Usage and Gateways generate revenues converted into QNT (or in QNT directly). So the correlation is strong between revenues and QNT needs. Interestingly, the cost of a licence is probably relatively low today in order to facilitate adoption and testing, but it will surely increase over time. The same goes for usage fees, especially as we move from testing/pilot phases to mass implementation. The number of clients will also increase. The Community version of Overledger is also set to officially launch next year. More information on revenue potential can be found later in this article.
STEP 3: We would need to define an evolution of the QNT token price over time and see how things develop with regards to Quant Network’s net purchase/sale of tokens every month (i.e. tokens required - tokens sold = net purchased/sold tokens).
Once assumptions are made, what do we observe?
In an undistorted environment, there is a positive correlation between Quant Network’s QNT-related revenues and the market capitalisation they occupy (i.e. the Quant Network share of the token distribution multiplied by the QNT price). However, this correlation can get heavily twisted as the speculative market prices a premium to the QNT price (i.e. anticipating higher revenues). As we will see, a persistent discount is not really possible as Quant Treasury would mechanically have to step in with large market purchases, which would provide strong support to the QNT price.
In addition, volatility is to be added to the equation since QNT volatility is likely to be (much) higher than that of revenues which can create important year-on-year disparities. For instance, Quant Treasury may lock a lot of tokens at a low price one year, and be well in excess of required tokens the next year if the QNT token price has significantly increased (and vice versa). This is not an issue per se, but this would impact the amount of tokens bought/sold on an ongoing basis by Quant Treasury as reserves inflate/deflate.
If we put aside the distortions created by speculation on the QNT price, and the subsequent impact on the excess/deficiency of Quant Network token reserves (whose level is also pro-actively managed by the company, as previously discussed), the economic system works as follows:
High QNT price vs. Revenue levels: The value of reserves is inflated, fewer tokens need to be bought for the level of revenues generated, Quant Treasury provides low support to the QNT price, its share of the token distribution diminishes.
Low QNT price vs. Revenue levels: Reserves run out, a higher number of tokens needs to be bought for the level of revenues generated, Quant Treasury provides higher support to the QNT price, its share of the token distribution increases.
Summary table:
https://preview.redd.it/q7wgzpv384y31.png?width=2312&format=png&auto=webp&s=d8c0480cb34caf2e59615ec21ea220d81d79b153
The key here is that, whatever speculation on future revenue levels does to the token in the first place, if the QNT price was falling and reaching a level that does not reflect the prevailing revenue levels of Overledger at a given time, then Quant Treasury would require a larger amount of tokens to cover the business needs which would mean the depletion of their reserves, larger purchases from the market and strong support for the QNT price from here. This is the safety net we want to see, coming from usage! Indeed, in other words, if the QNT price went very high very quickly, Quant Treasury may not be seen buying much tokens since their reserves would be inflated BUT that fall back mechanics purely based on usage would be there to safeguard QNT holders from the QNT price falling below a certain level.
I would assume this makes sense for most, and you might now wonder why have I highlighted the bottom part about the token distribution in red? That is because there is an ongoing battle between the QNT community and Quant Treasury — and this is very interesting.
The ecosystem will show how big a share is the community willing to let Quant Network represent. The community actually sets the price for the purchases, and the token distribution fluctuates depending on the metrics we discussed. An equilibrium will be formed based on the confidence the market has in Quant Network’s future revenue generation. Moreover, the QNT community could perceive the token as a Store of Value and be happy to hold 80/90% of all tokens for instance, or it could perceive QNT as more dynamic or risky and be happy to only represent 60/70% of the distribution. Needless to say that, considering my previous articles on the potential of Overledger, I think we will tend more towards the former scenario. Indeed, if you wished to store wealth with a technology-agnostic, future proof, globally adopted, revenue-providing (through Gateways) Network of Networks on which most of the digitalised value is flowing through — wouldn’t you see QNT as an appealing value proposition?
In a nutshell, it all comes down to the Overledger revenue levels and the QNT holders’ resistence to buy pressure from Quant Treasury. Therefore, if you are confident in the Overledger revenue generation and wish to see the QNT token price go up, more than ever, do not sell your tokens!
What about the locked tokens? There will always be a certain amount of tokens that are entirely taken out of circulation, but Quant Network company will always keep additional unlocked tokens on top of that (those they receive and manage as buffer) and that means that locked tokens will always be a subset of what Quant Network possesses. I do not know whether fees will primarily be concentrated on the licencing side vs. the usage side, but if that were to be the case then it would be even better as a higher amount of tokens would be taken out of circulation for good.
Finally, as long as the company operates, the revenues will always represent a certain amount of money whereas this is not the case for profits which may not appear before years (e.g. during the first years, during an economic/business downturn, etc.). As an illustration, a company like Uber has seen vast increases in revenues since it launched but never made any profit! Therefore, the demand for the QNT token benefits from good resilience from that perspective.
Quant Network vs. QNT community — What proportion of the QNT distribution will each represent?

How much revenues can Overledger generate?

I suggest we start with the basis of what the Quant Network business is about: connecting networks together, building new-generation hyper-decentralised apps on top (called “mApps”), and creating network effects.
Network effects are best defined by Metcalfe’s law which states: “the effect of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of the system” (Source: Wikipedia). This is illustrated by the picture below, which demonstrates the increasing number of possible connections for each new user added to the network. This was also recently discussed in a YouTube podcast by QNT community members “Luke” and “Ghost of St. Miklos” which you can watch here.
Source: applicoinc.com
This means that, as Overledger continues to connect more and more DLTs of all types between themselves and also with legacy systems, the number of users (humans or machines) connected to this Network of Networks will grow substantially — and the number of possible connections between participants will in turn grow exponentially. This will increase the value of the network, and hence the level of fees associated with getting access to it. This forms the basis of expected, future revenue generation and especially in a context where Overledger remains unique as of today and embraced by many of the largest institutions in the world (see the detailed summary on the matter from community member “Seq” here).
On top of this network, multi-chain hyper-decentralised applications (‘mApps’) can be built — which are an upgrade to existing dApps that use only one chain at a time and hence only benefit from the user base and functionalities of the given chain. Overledger mApps can leverage on the users and abilities of all connected chains at the same time, horizontal scaling, the ability to write/move code in any language across chains as required, write smart contracts on blockchains that do not support them (e.g. Bitcoin), and provide easier connection to other systems. dApps have barely had any success so far, as discussed in my first article, but mApps could provide the market with the necessary tools to build applications that can complement or rival what can be found on the Apple or Google Play store.
Also, the flexibility of Overledger enables Quant Network to target a large number of industries and to connect them all together. A sample of use cases can be found in the following illustration:
https://preview.redd.it/th8edz5b84y31.png?width=2664&format=png&auto=webp&s=105dd4546f8f9ab2c66d1a5a8e9f669cef0e0614
It is to be noted that one of the use cases, namely the tokenisation of the entire world’s assets, represents a market worth hundreds of trillions of USD and that is not even including the huge amount of illiquid assets not currently traded on traditional Capital Markets which could benefit from the tokenisation process. More information on the topic can be found in my previous article fully focused on the potential of Overledger to capture value from the structural shift in the world’s assets and machine-related data/value transfers.
Finally, we can look at what well established companies with a similar technology profile have been able to achieve. Overledger is an Operating System for DLTs and legacy systems on top of which applications can be built. The comparison to Microsoft Windows and the suite of Microsoft Software running on top (e.g. Microsoft Office) is an obvious one from that perspective to gauge the longer term potential.
As you can see below, Microsoft’s flagship softwares such as Windows and Office each generate tens of billions of USD of revenues every year:
Source: Geekwire
We can also look at Oracle, the second largest Enterprise software company in the world:
Source: Statista
We can finally look at what the Apple store and the Google Play store generate, since the Quant Network “mApp store” for the community side of Overledger will look to replicate a similar business model with hyper-decentralised applications:
Source: Worldwide total revenue by app store, 2018 ($bn)
The above means total revenues of around USD 70bn in 2018 for the Apple store and Google Play store combined, and the market is getting bigger year-on-year! Also, again, these (indicative!) reference points for Overledger come in the context of the Community version of the system only, since the Enterprise version represents a separate set of verticals more comparable to the likes of Microsoft and Oracle which we just looked at.

Conclusion

I hope this article helped shed further light on the QNT token and how the various market and business parameters will influence its behavior over time, as the Quant Network business is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years.
In the recent Forbes interview, Quant Network’s CEO (Gilbert Verdian) stated : “Our potential to grow is uncapped as we change and transform industries by creating a secure layer between them at speed. Our vision is to build a mass version of what I call an internet of trust, where value can be securely transferred between global partners not relying on defunct internet security but rather that of blockchain.”.
This is highly encouraging with regards to business prospects and also in comparison to what other companies have been able to achieve since the Web as we know it today emerged (e.g. Microsoft, Google, Apple, etc.). The Internet is now entering a new phase, with DLT technology at its core, and Overledger is set to be at the forefront of this new paradigm which will surely offer a vast array of new opportunities across sectors.
I believe it is an exciting time for all of us to be part of the journey, as long as any financial commitment is made with a good sense of responsibility and understanding of what success comes down to. “Crypto” is still immature in many respects, and the emergence of a dedicated regulatory framework combined with the expected gradual, selective entrance of institutional money managers will hopefully help shed further light and protect retail token holders from the misunderstandings, misinformation and misconduct which too many have suffered from in the last years.
Thanks for your time and interest.
Appendix:
First article: “The reasons why Quant Network (QNT) will rise to the Top of the crypto sphere in the coming months”
Second article: “The potential of Quant Network’s technology to capture value from the structural shift in the World’s assets and machine-related data/value transfers”
October 2019 City AM interview of Gilbert Verdian (CEO): Click here
October 2019 Blockchain Brad interview of Gilbert Verdian (CEO): Click here
July 2019 Blockchain Brad interview of Gilbert Verdian (CEO): Click here
February 2019 Blockchain Brad interview of Gilbert Verdian (CEO): Click here
----
About the original author of the article:
My name is David and I spent years in the Investment Banking industry in London. I hold QNT tokens and the above views are based on my own thoughts and research only. I am not affiliated with the Quant Network team in any way. This is not investment advice, please do your own research and understand what you are buying before doing so. It is also my belief that more than 90% of all other crypto projects will fail because what matters is what is getting adopted; please do not put more money at risk than you can afford to lose.
submitted by mr_sonic to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

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